Apple II Sound Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground file: Csa2SOUND.txt rev012 The Csa2 (comp.sys.apple2) usenet newsgroup Frequently Asked Questions files are compiled by the Ground Apple II site, 1997 - 1999. ftp://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/2/apple2/Faqs http://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/2/apple2/Faqs for on-line perusing via Netscape, etc. ... http://www.apple2.net/gswv/A2.FAQs.and.INFO/CSA2.FAQs/ ftp://apple.cabi.net/pub/applegs/FAQs.and.INFO/A2.Csa2.FAQs/ ftp://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/2/apple2/Faqs/Formatted/ (double-spaced) The Csa2 FAQs may be freely distributed. Note: To correctly view tables and diagrams on a super-res display, use a mono-spaced Font such as CoPilot or PCMononspaced. ____________________________ 001- How does the GS produce so many simultaneous sounds? 002- Is there a way to output quadraphonic sound on a IIgs? 003- Do I get Stereo from my IIgs Sound Output jack? 004- Why should I add a stereo board to my GS? 005- How can I build my own GS stereo board? 006- How can I transfer sound files created on a Mac to my GS? 007- How do I program a Phasor Sound Card? 008- What is required to build a Sound Input board for my IIgs? 009- What's what re. MockingBoard hardware and programming? 010- How do I get my MockingBoard to work on my GS? 011- How do I play Ultima IV/V with MockingBoard sound on my GS? 012- How can I get 'regular Apple sound' to play through MB outputs? 013- What GS programs will let me play MIDI files? 014- Would FExt.NDA let you play thru Synthinit? 015- Can I play .WAV files on my GS? 016- What formats are used for audio files? 017- How do I use my Echo speech synthesizer to produce speech? 018- What types of sound files are used on the GS? 019- Where can I find more info on cards, editing, digitizing, ...? 020- What is "old Apple" sound and how is it produced? 021- What is a good source for .WAV and .BNK files? 022- How can I get more System Sounds for my GS? 023- How can I run Music Studio 2.0 from hard disk? 024- How can I record better sound samples on my IIgs? 025- Squeals and other noises spoil my GS stereo board sound? A fix? 026- My IIgs has no sound from the internal speaker. What's the fix? From: Todd Whitesel 001- If the GS only has eight output chanels, then it would seen to me that it could only play eight different sounds at a time. So how can I digitize fifteen different sounds and play them all back simultaneously? To summarize the following lecture: There are 32 oscillators (16 generators) and 16 channels. Not all are used for actual sound output. Oscillators are "smart voices" Generators are oscillator pairs that can generate extra effects with each other Channels are actual independent output lines like left and right speaker That said, let's start at the top. The DOC is a coprocessor with its own dedicated 64K of RAM. All the sound samples have to be put in this RAM before they can be played. The DOC has 32 'oscillators' which are essentially smart DMA channels. Their basic function is to sweep through areas of the DOC memory reading samples and playing them. They can do so at variable speeds (automatically repeating or skipping sample values as necessary), they can loop on a power of two boundary, they can stop when they read a zero, they have independent volume settings, and various other things that aid in reproducing complex instruments without loading down the main CPU. But when you come down to it, the DOC is capable of playing 32 sounds simultaneously and independent of each other, provided that all the sample data fits in the DOC RAM. The oscillators are not all perfectly identical in operation. For the basic sample playing and looping they are, but for some more complex functions they must be paired. This is where the concept of 'generators' comes from -- the 16 generators ARE operationally identical and that is why software prefers the generator concept. Both oscillators and generators are numbered from 0, so oscillators 0 & 1 are generator 0, oscillators 2 & 3 are generator 1, and so on. Generator 15 (oscillators 30 & 31) is reserved for system use (one oscillator is set to loop slowly at zero volume, to generate tempo; I forget if the other is used by anything, it's probably used to play mono samples). Most software use one generator per voice. Since 15 generators are left over, spec'ing the GS as having "15 voice sound capability" is a fair statement. The actual output that comes out the DOC is a 'time-domain multiplexed' sound output and five digital bits. What happens is this: the DOC services each oscillator in turn, and for each oscillator the current sample value is multiplied by the oscillators' volume setting and a voltage proportional to the product is output on the sound output. Four of the digital bits are set to the 'channel number' setting for the oscillator and the last one simply changes voltage from about 3 volts to about 0.5 (for you EE folks out there, this is the negative edge of an output-valid strobe). External hardware is responsible for splitting off the various channels (4 bits means that there can be 16 of them) and outputting them seperately. The motherboard hardware just ignores the channel setting and mixes all the sound outputs into the speaker/earphone. The sound connector on the motherboard only has room for 3 of the four bits, so expansion cards that plug into the sound connector can only get 8 seperate output channels. Most stereo cards (AE's sonic blaster, for example) only pay attention to the lowest bit, so even numbered channels are left and odd numbered channels are right (or is it the other way round? I forget). No, it isn't simple, but it gives a lot of flexibility -- most of which is largely untapped. ____________________________ From: Keen Jeffrey Alfred 002- Is there a way to output quadrphonic sound on a IIgs? We all know that the "S" in GS stands for sound. Stereo cards abound but the GS is capable of much more. The following circuit uses the same technique as stereo cards to decode stereo but decodes quadrophonic. Inside the GS by the memory expansion slot exists the J-25 sound expansion connector that most stereo cards use. The pin outs are as follows: J-25 Connector 1 Analog to digital in (end nearest front of computer) 2 Analog ground 3 Waveform out 4 Channel address zero 5 Channel address one 6 Channel address strobe 7 Channel address two The analog in (pin 1) doesn't concern us here. The waveform out is the important signal. The contains the output of all oscilators one after the other in quick succession (the DOC only handles one at a time). When the DOC is outputing the waveform from an oscilator it puts the channel address from the DOC register $A0 + osc (most significant four bits) on the three channel address lines and pulls the channel address strobe low. (The DOC realy has four lines but only three are connected in the GS). The circuit below uses the first two lines the decode the channels (creating 4 unique channels) and breaks the signal into four parts depending on the address using cmos single position single toggle wired as dual position single toggle switches. Then the chopped output is smoothed with an active low pass filter with a corner frequency of 17.7KHz. Because most programs only use stereo the second channel address in normally low so this circuit will also decode stereo and this will turn up at the front two outputs. I have built this circuit on a bread board but need to make a PC board to make a better sounding circuit. Also the output impedance should be set to 75K ohms but I haven't yet gotten around to it. To make sound in stereo or quad all you have to do is place the binary address of the channel you wish the sound to have in the control regsister for the ocsilator (the tools can do this) and there you have it. C1 o----||----o |\ 1/4 IC7 | R2 | o-----------o--| >o---o o--/\/\/\--o | | |/ __|___ | _ o-|-----o-----|-------|____|--o R1 | | \_ IC1 | | | __|___ 1/4 IC5 | * Pin 3--/\/\/\--o-|- \_ | | | o-|____|------------o---[O]--FL | \__o | | | 1/4 IC5 o-|+ _/ | | | |\ 1/4 IC7 | | _/ | o---|-|---o--| >o---o | |_/ | | | | | |/ __|___ _|_ | | o-|---|-------|____|--o /// | | | | __|___ 1/4 IC5 | * | | | o-|____|------------o---[O]--FR IC2 | | | | 1/4 IC5 ______ | | | | |\ 1/4 IC7 | | | | o-|-|---o--| >o---o Pin 4----|a 1|-------------o | | | | | |/ __|___ Pin 5----|b 2|---------------o | o-|---|-------|____|--o | 3|-----------------o | | __|___ 1/4 IC6 | * |__ 4|--------------o | o-|____|------------o---[O]--BL Pin 6----|EN | | | | 1/4 IC6 |____| | | | |\ 1/4 IC7 o----|-|---o--| >o---o | | | |/ __|___ o-|---|-------|____|--o | __|___ 1/4 IC6 | * o-|____|------------o---[O]--BR | 1/4 IC6 | | *Notes: [O] = Output Stage _|_ FL = "Front Left" /// BR = "Back Right" ... etc. Typical Output Stage [O] C2 - C5 o----||----o | R3 - R6 | trim pot o--/\/\/\--o o----o | _ | | v | | \_ | ----o--/\/\/\--o-|- \_ | R7 - R10 | \__o--------- o-|+ _/ | | _/ | |_/ 1/2 IC3 - IC4 _|_ /// R1 - R6 : 1.2k ohm R7 - R10 : 2k ohm trim potentiometer C1 - C5 : 47pf IC1 : LM318 high speed op-amp IC2 : 74F139N dual 2 to 4 decoder IC3 - IC4 : TL072 dual op-amp jfet input IC5 - IC6 : 4016 cmos SPST analog switch IC7 : 4069 cmos hex inverter ---------------------- From: Brian Willoughby While there is nothing *wrong* with your circuit, I thought that I would mention that the functionality of IC2, IC5, 6 & IC7 are combined in a few standard CMOS chips. It turns out that your circuit is so useful in many applications that you can easily find it in one chip, thus saving wiring and lowering noise. Look for a Siliconix DG506 or any make of 4058. I'm not absolutely sure about the number 4058, but just check in any CMOS 4000 series list for an 8-channel to 1 analog multiplexer/demultiplexer (not the digital type, they won't handle audio/sound signals). ---------------------- From: Seth D. Kadesh One of the chips Brian refers to is a 4052. Both the LM318 and the 4052 can be purchased from B.G. Micro (214-271-5546). Cost for both was $3.75 USA. The other parts can be purchased from Radio Shack. ____________________________ From: Rubywand 003- My IIgs has a stereo cable plugged right into the Sound Output jack. Isn't that two-channel sound? Nope; and, it is not "stereo" either. The jack is a standard stereo jack; but, the "Left" and "Right" outputs are connected to a single 'composite' source. Possibly, Apple originally intended to supply two-channel sound; perhaps, the idea was just to simplify connections to stereo systems. (Stereo devotees get upset when you give them just one 'channel' to plug in.) Whatever, the fact remains: for multi-channel output you need to add a "stereo board". ------------------------- 004- Why should I add a stereo board to my GS? Some programs offer true stereo-- effects and music are lifted from stereo sources or 'recorded' using two mikes-- others deliver simulated stereo. Many products output some effects (like a bow twang) through one channel and other effects (the THUNK! of an arrow hit) through the second channel. Stereo, of course, produces spacious, '3-D sound'; but, even the 'separated channels' approach can spread out the action and add realism. -------------------------- Related FAQs Resources: R004STEREO.GIF (GIF pic file) 005- Can I build my own GS stereo board? Yes. Apple includes a rough outline for a stereo board design in the GS Hardware Reference Manual. The "TDX Stereo Board" is a real-world realization of the Apple description. Note: See the FAQs Resource file R004STEREO.GIF for the TDX diagram. From input to output, the TDX design is straight-forward and simple. First, IIgs audio enters the 14052 where the "Left" and "Right" channels are separated using the C0 input to turn ON the appropriate section (output X or Y) when its channel is valid. (This happens at supersonic speeds so that the user doesn't notice that each channel is ON half of the time.) Then, each output goes to a pair of op amps where it's filtered and amplified. Design objectives were low noise, low distortion, and low power consumption. From the start I expected that on-board power amp IC's would be too puny to drive our speakers to desired volume levels and maintain low distortion; so, the board includes no power amp IC's and is not intended to directly drive low impedance loads such as speakers. Like a tuner, CD deck, or other hi-fi source, it connects to a stereo amplifier's AUX inputs (or "Tuner", "Tape", etc. inputs) or to the inputs of speaker units with built-in amplifiers. TDX has plenty of juice to drive any decent stereo system at 'blow out the windows' volume levels. As shown in the diagram, nearly all connections between TDX and the computer, including ground, are made over the J-25 lines. Power (+5 Volts and -5 Volts) comes from the slot into which the board is plugged. The outputs go to "RCA-type" hi-fi jacks mounted on the rear of the board for easy access via standard audio cables. When placing the jacks, be sure to allow space (between the jacks and rear of the computer) for the cable plugs or arrange for the jacks to line up with an opening. The J-25 connection is via a 7-pin mini-molex ribbon cable. It can go to J-25 (located near the memory expansion slot); or, if J-25 is being used by the Hyperstudio A/D input board, it plugs in there. (On both J-25 and its extension on the A/D board, pin #1 is nearest the front of the computer, pin #2 is next, etc..) All of the parts, including the Apple-compatible circuit board, are commonly available. I built the TDX stereo board near the start of the IIgs era just as games like "Tower of Myraglen" were beginning to appear. It sounded great then and it sounds great today running "Dungeon Master", "Instant Music", "Jam Session", and Hyperbole MIDI-synth pieces. If your IIgs is still in mono mode, why not make this the year you 'go stereo'. Add a commercial unit or build the TDX. Either way, when you spread out the sound you open up the fun! ____________________________ From: Bryan Ogawa 006- How can I transfer sound files created on a Mac to my GS? I did the following to get stuff that my next-door neighbor digitized on his LC using the Control Panel Document Sound for Mac Sys. 7: 1. Digitize Find the System Folder, and the System document/whatever (it's called a SUITCASE) and double-click: find the sound I wanted... copy to my HFS formatted 800K disk plop it into my GS 2. Convert Get AudioZap out and sic it on the files. Click RESOURCE fork when it asks where to get the sound for. Save it in any format you want. Then, you can probably use SynthCreate to make a SYNTHLAB wavebank... ____________________________ From: Mitchell Spector Related FAQs Resources: R013PHASOR.TXT (Phasor Mini-Manual text file) 007- I just got a Phasor Sound Card and now I need some info. What are the 4 DIP switches used for? What are the 2 POTs used for? And, where can I get programming information? The Phasor is a great sound card. Offers you 12 sound channels (using all sorts of wave-form patterns and effects, simular to FM-synthesis in IBMs), 4 white noise generators (synthesized drums, etc) and a 1-voice synthesized speech channel, expandable to 2 speech channels. Has a 4 watt amplifier that can drive stereo speakers (left & right). It's compatible with most older sound cards, like the Mockingboard, ALF, SMS and Echo+. Few programs ever supported it, let alone many programs out there that supported the older cards. It did, however, come with some decent software that showed off the card's features and let you experiment with it a bit. The four DIP switches control emulation modes and standard Apple ][ internal speaker sound-level (only if you disconnect internal speaker and have old speaker toggling sent to Phasor). Switches #1 and #2 are for emulations. Switches #3 and #4 control your old internal speaker sounds, again, *if* you have speaker disconnected and that pin location on motherboard connected to Phasor. You can set Low, Medium and High volume with three different DIP positions. This doesn't affect Phasor music/sound however. To do that, you must turn those two pots you asked about. Each controls either the left or right stereo channel. Turning them clock-wise increases volume, and you probably don't want this too high up, or sound gets distorted! Put both on an equal setting, unless you want one channel louder/softer than the other. Phasor DIP switch emulation modes: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Native Phasor mode: 1: closed, 2: closed Mockingboard mode: 1: opened, 2: closed Echo+ mode: 1: opened, 2: opened (Never got this mode to work!) ____________________________ From: Adrian Whichello 008- What is required to build a Sound Input board for my IIgs? I found the following circuit on ground (in ftp://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/apple2/MiscInfo/Hardware/digitizer.circuit [quote] If you don't mind putting together a few parts, you can build your own adapter, though (explanation follows): GS Analog 10-500 uF In ---------------+------------+----+------------||------ >> | | | -+- -+- + To CD player, 5V Zener /_\ Signal /_\ = 1.5V microphone, diode | Diode | - Battery etc. GS | | | Ground -------------+------------+----+-------------------- >> [end quote] but I changed it to this (a better ascii rendition of the circuit is available!): GS Analog 100 uF In ------------+-----------+----+---------+-------||----- >> | | Z + -+- -+- +-----+ Z 10K To CD player, 5V Zener /_\ Signal /_\ = 3V Z Z microphone, diode | Diode | - Z<--+ etc. GS | | | Z 10K pot Ground ----------+-----------+----+-----+------------------ >> The Ensoniq is designed to handle 0 to 2.5V input, but audio sources usually swing more or less equally +/- about zero. Therefore we need a level shifter, to put the appropriate DC bias onto the input. The 3V battery and the 10K pot are for this. To stop the low internal impedence of the battery effectively shorting the sound source (which happens with the first circuit), I've included another 10K resistor. The easy way to set this up is to use a program like AudioZap and with the CD etc. end input shorted, set the centreline of the oscilloscope display to be halfway up the screen, so the input signal will swing equally either side of this reference voltage. The zener diode is to clip the top of spikes to limit them to about 5V and the signal diode is to clip any negative going signal to -0.6V. This is protect the Ensoniq chip from overload. The capacitor keeps the DC out of the source. Pin one on the GS connector is closest to the *front* of the computer (ie with the expansion slots at the back. The Ensoniq has a fairly low input impedence (about 3-5K), but most portable cassette or CD players should be able to handle this, since most headphones have a much lower impedence than this (usually around 50 to 100 ohms, even as low as eight for old ones). You can use a tape deck as an amplifier and "impedence buffer" for a microphone. If you can get the file http://cassius.ee.su.oz.au/~adrianw/gsaudioin.bsq there's proof there that it all works (a raw sound file I made). ____________________________ 009- Does anyone know where I can get some details on MockingBoard hardware and programming? MockingBoard Mini-Manual 11/97 version From: Rubywand Part 1: Kinds of MockingBoards The original MockingBoards come in four basic 'flavors': Sound I-- produces music tones and a variety of sound effects (3 voices to 1 Audio Output) Speech I-- produces speech or limited sound effects (1 voice output to 1 Audio Output) Sound II-- 2 x Sound I on a single board (3+3 voices to 2 Audio Outputs) Sound/Speech I-- Sound I + Speech I on a single board (3+1 voices to 2 Audio Outputs) Note ... Audio Output: This goes to a speaker or hi-fi amplifier Voice: a musical note, sound effect, speech sound, etc. Quite a few of the original MockingBoards were sold. Later MB's use model names like "MockingBoard A", etc.. The main difference between the original series and letter-named boards is wider availability of Speech. Edhel Iaur and Mike Mahon supplied details on models A-D. Prices are from a Sweet Micro Systems ad in the December, 1985 issue of _A+_ magazine: MockingBoard A is a stereo music and sound synthesizer with six voices. Suggested retail price is $99.00. This model has two sockets for adding speech synthesis IC's so that a user could add speech to one or both Audio Outputs. Except for the speech upgrade options, MB-A is very similar to the earlier Sound II. "MockingBoard B" is just the name of the Speech Upgrade; it is not a separate MB board. The kit consists of one speech synthesizer chip. Earlier MB's used the 16-pin SC-01 speech IC, while later board runs provided 24-pin sockets for the newer (but somewhat flawed) SSI-263 speech synthesizer chip. Suggested kit retail price is $89.00. MockingBoard C is simply a MB-A that has been upgraded by plugging in one speech chip. Suggested retail price is $179.00. (There was an 'undocumented' upgrade, obtainable by plugging in the other speech chip, which allowed the board to "sing harmony" with itself!) MockingBoard D is a stereo music, sound and speech synthesizer for the Apple IIc. It connects to a IIc through a serial port and is, of course, external (unlike the Slot board models for other Apple II's). Its drivers are very different from the slot I/O of the other MockingBoards. Suggested retail price is $195.00. Phasor is a MockingBoard-compatible sound card produced by Applied Engineering. Looking at the software that comes with the Phasor may be helpful to MB users. MockingBoards work on Apple II's with at least 48K RAM. MB can go into any Slot (except for MB-D, which must plug into a IIc). Most programs expect it to be in Slot 4; however, it is fairly common for a program which supports MB to ask you to enter the Slot #. Most for-MB products will work with Sound I, Sound II, Sound/Speech I, A, and C. (Some work with D.) Products that use MB include Ultima III, IV, V Sky Fox, Wiley Byte', Thunder Bombs, Lancaster, Under Fire, Music Construction Set, GuitarMaster, and Music Star. MB's 0.5 Watt Audio Output(s) can directly drive an 8 Ohm speaker. You can also run the Output(s) to a hi-fi amplifier. Except for speech-only models, MB uses the General Instruments AY-3-8910 Programmable Sound Generator IC. The PSG has 3 on-chip tone oscillators (via channels A, B ,C) and a Noise Generator (NG). So, for example, the Sound II can play up to 6 notes or effects at once. The NG on each PSG can be mixed with any, all, or none of the three tones. Many MB "Speech" version boards use the Votrax SC-01 Speech Synthesizer IC. The SC-01 uses 64 phoneme sounds to produce speech. MB software lets you adjust duration of each phoneme in 4 steps, create "rules" for custom sounds, and speak sentences from text in BASIC programs. The SSI-263 speech synthesizer appeared on later model MB's. (At present, more info on the SSI-263 is not included here.) All MB versions use the 6522 Versatile Interface IC to handle board I/O. Except for the Sound I board, early models have circuit board points to which you can add cables to utilize I/O ports not needed for Sound or Speech. Part 2: Sound Programming Each Programmable Sound Generator (PSG) has 3 output Channels: A, B, and C. There are also 3 Tone oscillators, one committed to each Channel, and one Noise Generator (NG) which can send its output to any Channel(s). Amplitude (output Level or Volume) and Envelope Control ON/OFF is set for each Channel. The PSG's Enable/Disable register has 8 bits. Three bits let you decide whether or not to send a Tone oscillator''s output to its Channel. For example, you can enable Tone outputs for the oscillators going through Channels A and B while disabling Tone output for the oscillator connected to Channel C. The Enable/Disable register also lets you decide whether or not to send the Noise Generator's output through a Channel. Three bits let you decide which Channel(s) the NG's output will go through. For example, you can enable NG output through Channels A and C but not through B; or, disable NG output through all three Channels, etc.. If, for example, Channel A's Tone oscillator output is enabled and NG output is enabled for Channel A, then, a mixed Tone + NG signal will go through Channel A. Setting Channel A's Amplitude controls the Level for the mixed signal. Often, a programmer will want to individually control the Levels of Tone outputs (for music) and Noise outputs (for sound effects). This is accomplished by using one PSG Channel only for Noise and two Channels only for Tones. Since the MB Sound II has 2 PSG's, a typical game application using the board will have 4 music tones and 2 effects sounds-- each individually controlled for Level. More specifically, the user can set Tone Frequency (12 bits, 4 coarse & 8 fine) and Amplitude (4 bits) for each channel individually. A fifth Amplitude bit lets you decide if a channel's Level will be "fixed" (use the Level value) or "variable" (i.e. follow the current Envelope pattern). You have 4 bits to set Noise Generator Frequency. Tone Freq = A2 Clock Freq/ [ (4096 x Coarse) + (16 x Fine) ] Noise Freq = A2 Clock Freq/ (16 x NG value) The Envelope of the combined outputs of enabled sources can be controlled for Period (16 bits, 8 coarse & 8 fine)** and, roughly, for Shape (4 bits). Env Freq = A2 Clock Freq/ [ (65536 x Coarse) + (256 x Fine) ] The registers of the PSG are described briefly below: Reg. Function and Bit(s) used 00 A Freq. fine (bits 0-7) 01 A Freq. coarse (bits 0-3) 02 B Freq. fine (bits 0-7) 03 B Freq. coarse (bits 0-3) 04 C Freq. fine (bits 0-7) 05 C Freq. coarse (bits 0-3) 06 NG Freq. (bits 0-4) 07 Enable/Disable note: Enable =0/ Disable =1 bit 5: NG sent to A bit 4: NG sent to B bit 3: NG sent to C bit 2: A Tone bit 1: B Tone bit 0: C Tone Ex: Writing $F0 to Reg 07 plays tones A, B, C plus noise on C Ex: Writing $F8 to Reg 07 plays tones A, B, C and no noise 08 A Level (bits 0-3) and Envelope Control (bit 4): 1 = Use Env; 0 = Use Level value 09 B Level (0-3) and Envelope Control (bit 4): 1 = Use Env; 0 = Use Level value 0A C Level (0-3) and Envelope Control (bit 4): 1 = Use Env; 0 = Use Level value 0B Envelope Period Fine (bits 0-7) 0C Envelope Period Coarse (bits 0-7) 0D Envelope Shape (four bits): Continue (bit 3) 0= do 1 cycle and set Level to zero Attack (bit 2) 1= count up 0= count down Alternate (bit 1) 1= reverse count direction each cycle Hold (bit 0) 1= do 1 cycle and hold count To program the MB you write to the board's 6522 I/O chip(s). All address references here are for a MB Sound II (2 Audio Outputs) in Slot 4. $C400 ORB1 function to perform, Output 1 $C480 ORB2 function to perform, Output 2 $C401 ORA1 data, Output 1 $C481 ORA2 data, Output 2 $C402 DDRB1 data direction, Output 1 $C482 DDRB2 data direction, Output 2 $C403 DDRA1 data direction, Output 1 $C483 DDRA2 data direction, Output 2 Before sending music, etc. data to the MB you must Initialize the board's I/O. To Initialize the 6522's: Store $FF at $C402 and the other three DDRxx addresses. This needs to be done by your program just once. Your program gets access to a PSG via the 6522 by using a few basic Function codes which set the PSG's I/O control lines: Set Inactive = $04 Set PSG Reg# = $07 Write Data = $06 Reset = $00 To Write to a PSG register: Tell the PSG which Register you wish to access (i.e. Set the "current register" #) and Write the data. This is easiest to do with subroutines to handle the basic Functions. Example Subroutines (for Output Channel 1): Set Reg # 1000: A9 07 8D 00 C4 A9 04 8D 00 C4 60 Write Data 100B: A9 06 8D 00 C4 A9 04 8D 00 C4 60 Notice that each Function sub ends by setting the PSG control lines to Inactive. Similarly, to do a Reset (set all PSG regs to zero) ... Reset 1016: A9 00 8D 00 C4 A9 04 8D 00 C4 60 To put the value $55 in PSG Register 02 (Channel B Freq. fine) .... 1080: A9 02 put Reg# in A (6502 accumulator register) 1082: 8D 01 C4 store A at the Data address ORA1 1085: 20 00 10 JSR to Set Reg# (sets "current register" to Reg 2) 1088: A9 55 put the value $55 in A 108A: 8D 01 C4 store A at the Data address ORA1 108D: 20 0B 10 JSR to Write Data ($55 goes into PSG Register 2) 1090: 60 Exit from subroutine ---------------------------- 010- How do I get my MockingBoard to work on my GS? You need to go to the GS Control Panel and change the Slots setting for the Slot your MB card is in to "Your Card". The 'standard' place for a MockingBoard is Slot 4. A few early programs require that the board be there in order to work; but, most programs which use MB will let you specify the Slot. A few games and other wares require modifications or interface software to work with MB on a GS. --------------------------- 011- I have a Mockingboard Sound II board installed in my GS but cannot get it to work with Ultima IV and Ultima V. How can I play these games with MockingBoard music and sound effects? U4MOCKV2.SHK is a collection of programs which will let you play Ultima IV on your GS with MockingBoard sound. You can also set game speed and border color. For playing Ultima V with MB sound, check out U5MBONGS.SHK. Both of these wares take care of activating the MockingBoard Slot without changing Control Panel settings. You can find them on Ground in the AOL area: ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/2/apple2/Collections/AOL/Games/Adv./Roleplay ____________________________ From: Tom Mage 012- How can I get 'regular Apple sound' (like BEEPs, etc.) to play through my Mockingboard's outputs? I recently got a Mockingboard C, which, it turns out, has a plug and cable specifically for connecting in sound from the Speaker! (Most likely, the MB A has a similar connection.) ---------------------------- From: Rubywand Evidently, older Mockingboards (like our Sound II) do not include the built-in Speaker connection; so, users with these boards will need to do a simple mod. The Apple II speaker is in the Collector circuit of the sound output transistor-- one end of the spkr goes to a resistor and capacitor connected to the output transistor Collector and the other goes to +5V (not ground). To get an audio output signal, the spkr must be in place; or, you can substitute a 1 watt resistor-- something in the 22-39 Ohm range. The output should come from the side of the spkr (or 1 watt resistor) going to the resistor & capacitor connected to the transistor-- i.e. the side which is _not_ the +5V side. The output goes through a coupling capacitor to the center lead of your RCA plug. The Ground side of the RCA plug goes to ground. "Ground" is DC ground = any motherboard trace area which is connected to the ground side of the power supply. For example, the outside "shell" of the composite video output is soldered to ground. Here is a rough picture ... +5V side | | < Speaker or 27 Ohm resistor | |---------------------|(--)|------------------------ Output | 10uF 10uF to Amplifier | 2 caps connected as bi-polar capacitor | Transistor _________________ Ground side | DC Ground You can get a bi-polar coupling capacitor at Radio Shack (2uF-5uF is fine) or make one by connecting two 10uF caps neg end to neg end. (The value is not critical, two 5uF caps connected back to back is fine.) ---------------------------- From: Michael Mahon For the vast majority of connections to external amplifiers, a non-polarized capacitor is not required in this circuit, precisely _because_ the transistor side of the capacitor never goes below ground. A 4.7 uF capacitor, with the (+) side toward the transistor collector and the (-) side toward the amplifier will do the job nicely. ____________________________ From: Mitchell Spector 013- Are there any GS programs that will let me play MIDI files that I get from the web? The best one out there is MIDISurgeon 2.0, formely available from EGO Systems. It lets you convert and tweak (very finely if need be) MIDI files into MIDIsynth format, what most people heavily associate with synthLAB. MIDIsynth is really the best way to hear MIDI sequences, though it is very limited these days: 7 voices and 64K worth of patches maximum (choosen from a small number of instrument banks out there, with a sparse selection). If you have MIDI files that are under 7 voices and only use a couple of instruments it is passable. There is also the freeware MIDIConvert program, but it isn't very flexible. WaveLAB (another program by Dave Tribby) is also worth downloading, it allows you to create new instrument banks. You should be able to get MIDIConvert from the Caltech and Ground FTP sites. SynthLAB/MIDIsynth is part of System 6, downloadable from Apple's FTP site. As for MIDISurgeon, you'll have to contact Dave Tribby to find out its status. I personally just use a MIDI connection between my Apple IIgs and PC with one end running synthLAB and the other CakeWalk Express, then have one side "play" the other and I record that. Makes editing much easier and faster. ---------------------------- From: Edhel Iaur, Esq. Apple's SynthLAB may be necessary for many solutions. Check out the following URLs for related midi wares: ftp://apple.cabi.net/pub/applegs/Music.and.Sound/ ftp://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/2/apple2/apple16/Music/Applics/ --------------------------- From: Clayburn Juniel/Effective Software Solutions Hey, what about Music Composer? It's much better than synthLAB for doing MIDI playback. Just a note. Music Composer* does use the MIDIsynth tool to play the music, and to do some editing. MIDIsynth does a lot that synthLAB doesn't use. It was always my impression the that synthLAB was never finished. *ESS web site: http://www.primenet.com/~clay1/ _______________________ 014- Would FExt.NDA let you play thru Synthinit if you placed Synthinit in the System.Setup folder? OK, I guess it's shameless plug time :) FExtNDA will allow you to use SynthInit from any desktop program. Place SynthInit in your System.Setup folder, and FExtNDA in your Desk.Accs folder (of course :). Then, in FExtNDA's preferences, check 'Send finderSaysIdle'. If you want to be able to use keypresses to change songs, also check 'Send finderSaysKeyHit'. For more useful information on using the two together, check the docs in FExtNDA. PS: SynthInit isn't the only Finder Extension that will work: IR, DeskTracker, FinderView, FinderSounder, TeacherReader, EGOed, etc. etc. etc. all work. ________________________________ From: Charles T. Turley 015- Can I play .WAV files on my GS? Yes. Download and check out 'Universal Sound Edit'. It's a GS sound editor that handles virtually every type of sound format from just about all computer platforms. You can read the documentation file and download the program archive-- USE.SHK -- from the GS.AUDIOWARES/ folder at ... ftp://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/2/apple2/Collections/1WSW/GS.WorldView/ ________________________________ From: Dave Huizing Related FAQs Resources: R011SNDFMTS.TXT (text file) 016- What formats are used for audio files? See the Audio File Formats Guide FAQs resource file R011SNDFMTS.TXT . ________________________________ Related FAQs Resources: R012ECHO.TXT (Echo mini-manual text file) 017- How do I use my Echo speech synthesizer to produce speech? See the Echo Speech Synthesizer Mini-Manual FAQS resource file R012ECHO.TXT . ________________________________ From: Ian Schmidt 018- What types of sound files are used on the GS? Several types of sample files are used. Here are the most common. Name Ext. FType Description --------------------------------------------------- Raw no std. BIN Contains only raw sample data. The auxtype is normally the sample rate divided by 51. (See section CA for more on why this is). ACE .ACE $CD Contains raw sample data compressed with ACE, Apple's Tool029 sound compressor. ASIF no std. $D8 Contains sample data plus additional data. Notable due to its use by SoundSmith. AIFF .AIFF $D8 Interchange format popular on the Macintosh. Not used much on the IIgs. Hyper Studio no std. $D8 Contains raw or ACE compressed data plus additional information. rSound no std. $D8 Resource fork contains one or more rSound and rResName resources. Used by HyperCard IIgs and the Sound CDev. -------------------------------- Related FAQs Resources: R015SNDNMUS.TXT (text file) 019- Where can I find more info on cards, editing, digitizing, ...? See the Sound & Music info FAQs resource file R015SNDNMUS.TXT. ________________________________ From: Rubywand 020- What is "old Apple" sound and how is it produced? All Apple II computers can produce "Old Apple" sound without any special boards or add-ons. The system BEEP you hear upon a Reset is an example. The sound is produced by code which addresses memory location $C030. Each time $C030 is referenced the output of a flip-flop going to a simple audio amplfier stage changes state. For example, in BASIC, X= PEEK(49200) will produce a single click. In machine code, so would AD 30 C0 (Load Accum from address $C030). Duration and Frequency of sound can be set by placing the address reference instruction inside a loop and using other loops to control speed of references. Although the signal going to the internal amplifier is always a square wave, creative coding by music enthusiasts, game developers, and other users has produced remarkable effects ranging from two-voiced music and game sounds to speech. ________________________________ From: Mitch Spector 021- What is a good source for .WAV and .BNK files? Have a look at ftp://ground.ecn.uiowa.edu/apple2/apple16/Music and you should find a couple of different custom made instrument banks for MIDIsynth. A couple to look for: 'Europe.bnk', MIDI.bnk', 'InstF.bnk', 'InstA.bnk', 'GrandPiano.bnk', 'Jazz.bnk', 'MT32.bnk'. ________________________________ From: Rick Diffley 022- How can get more System Sounds for my GS? IF you have HCGS (HyperCard GS) then, one way to get System Sounds is to place a HCGS stack with rSounds in the Sound folder. You'll have plenty of new sounds to use with the Sound CDev. Making a new stack and moving sounds into it works fine, but so does making a COMPLETELY EMPTY file of type $55/$0001 (HyperCard Stack -- you can save an empty text file and then change its file type to do it) and then moving the sounds into THAT. Afterwards, you can change the file type of that file to $D8/$0003 (Sound Resource) so HyperCard won't try to actually open it as a stack. This saves about 7K of space. Also, sound files that are placed in the */System/Sounds folder can be directly used by HCGS v1.1! You don't need to install those sounds into a stack! There's a smaller and much more manageable hammer. All that's required is HyperCard GS and some utility to change file types. To get sounds out of a HCGS stack and into a system sounds file, with NO OVERHEAD whatsoever, do the following: 1) Create an empty text (or binary, or whatever) file on disk. 2) Change the file type of that file to $55/$0001 (HyperCard GS stack). 3) Use HyperCard's XCMDs (or Hang's sound stacks) to copy sounds into that file that used to be a text file. 4) Change the file type of that file to $D8/$0003 (Sound resource). 5) Throw that file into your system Sounds folder. You could also just create a new stack from within HCGS and do the same thing, but it'll be about 7K larger, due to the information HCGS puts in a stack's data fork when it's created. ____________________________ From: Rubywand 023- How do I get System 6.0.1 to run Music Studio 2.0 from hard disk? A problem which seems to trip up many users is placement of the WAVES folder. You can put most of Music Studio in a folder named "AppleMusic" (or whatever); but, the WAVES folder needs to be in the main directory of the volume. ---------------------------- 024- Using Sound Shop and similar utilities, I get static and scratchiness on my GS sound samples and, sometimes, hum. What's wrong and how can I get better recordings? There are several ways to get "static" when recording sounds on your GS. One is to have incorrect settings for the sound recording program. If input level is set too low, you may be recording relatively more noise than sound. If input level is set too high, you may be getting "clipping"-- the signal gets chopped at the peaks-- which can sound like static. Also, check the Sampling Rate setting. A too-low sampling rate can result in glitchiness which sounds like static. If you have not already done so, try experimenting with your sound recording program's settings. If your sound input board has more than one input, then, one may be for "Line Input" for recording from a tuner, tape deck, etc. and another may be for "Mic". If there is a choice, be sure your sound source goes to the right input. For example, to record using a microphone, it should be plugged into "Mic". Hum usually indicates a different problem. Almost always it indicates a broken or very poor Ground/shield connection. Check your connector jacks and plugs. Sometimes just turning a cable plug in the socket/jack will establish a good contact and end hum. If you are using a microphone, it could be the source of problems. Static can come from a mike which is damaged, has some sand, etc. sitting on the diaphram, has an intermittant ON/OFF switch, has a damaged cord, or has a loose connection at the plug. Or; you may be using a perfectly good microphone which is badly mismatched to your sound input board. For example, a high quality mike may deliver a very low output. Your input circuit may auto-boost amplification to try to compensate; but, the result may be to obtain an audible recording with greatly increased noise. (Your signal-to-noise ratio at the input is too low.) By the way, the mike supplied with Hyperstudio (the Apple IIgs version) is not an especially high quality unit; but, it works fine with Hyperstudio's GS sound input board. If you are not sure that your mike is okay and is the right sort for your sound input board, try swapping in one from a tape recorder, etc.. ---------------------------- 025- Squeals and other noises spoil my GS stereo board sound? A fix? Your stereo board is plugged into a Slot and the noise probably comes from the Slot bus. The problem is noticed more often on Rom-01 GS's than ROM-03's because the latter seem to have heavier power traces and this helps reduce noise. However, any GS may exhibit Slot noise when a few power-sucking boards (e.g. an accelerator) are plugged in. For ways to reduce noise see Q&A related to fattened power supply leads, motherboard jumpers, and similar enhancements in the Power and Cooling FAQs file CSA2POWER.TXT. ---------------------------- 026- My IIgs has no sound from the internal speaker. How can I fix this? The fix _may_ be fairly easy. Try plugging Stereo headphones into the Sound Output jack on the back of the GS. Whatever you plug in (headphones, a connection to an amplifier, etc.) must have a Stereo plug. If you get sound through the headphones but no sound when the headphones are unplugged, it means that your jack is, probably, messed up. There's a leaf switch which is part of the jack which is supposed to close and connect-up your internal speaker when nothing is plugged in. If this switch's contacts become dirty or the leaf loses its springiness, the switch fails to close. The easiest long-term fix is to either A. solder a jumper which keeps the switch closed whether or not anything is plugged in or B. plug in an external speaker (using a Stereo plug). Another, fairly rare, cause of Sound loss is that the internal Speaker "+" lead has been pressed against a pointy Ground circuit point on the motherboard. This sometimes happens when the small front panel and/or the motherboard has been removed and replaced without making sure the Speaker lead is routed correctly. If neither of the above fits your Soundlessness problem, describe your system and post the question to Csa2.