Apple II Frequently Asked Questions: Main Hall-1 ... Start Here!

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground file: Csa21MAIN.txt  rev012 2/28/1999

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                  Csa2 FAQs on Ground "Main Hall"

                  Last updated: 28 February 1999

     Welcome to the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup Frequently Asked
Questions! This file is called "Main Hall" because it's your
starting-off point for accessing the Csa2 FAQs.

     You can peruse a listing of FAQs files along with lists of
questions answered; OR, you can check out some 'getting started' and
'what's where?' Questions & Answers immediately below. Whenever you
like, you can skip to the FAQs Files & Contents area in Main Hall-2.

 001- What is a FAQ?
 002- What is comp.sys.apple2?
 003- What software do I need to get starter and how do I get it?
 004- How do I download and upload Apple II files on the net?
 005- Where can I get Apple II software and information on the net?
 006- What is an Apple II: The KIM
 007- What is an Apple II: The Apple I
 008- What is an Apple II: The Apple ][ and Apple ][+
 009- What is an Apple II: The "Black Apple"
 010- What is an Apple II: The Apple //e
 011- What is an Apple II: The Apple //c and IIc+
 012- What is an Apple II: The Laser 128EX and 'EX/2?
 013- What is an Apple II: The Apple IIgs
 014- What is an Apple II: The Apple ][e Emulation Card
 015- Where can I find a compact listing of Apple IIgs specs?
 016- What is "8 bit" and "16 bit"?
 017- How can I tell what version my computer is?
 018- How can I find out about using my Apple II?
 019- Where do I find out about Apple II Users Groups?
 020- Where can I get Apple II parts, boards, and software?
 021- Where do I get Apple II books and periodicals?

001- What is a FAQ?

     A "FAQ" is a "Frequently Asked Question". The Csa2 FAQs is a
collection of topics files which seeks to supply answers to questions
about the Apple II series of computers and Apple II computing.


002- What is comp.sys.apple2?

     Comp.sys.apple2 (Csa2) is a USENET newsgroup.  USENET posts
originate from your local newsreader and spread to hundreds of thousands
of machines throughout the Internet, FidoNet, ProLine BBS system, etc..

     There are several newsgroups in the Csa2 family, all concerned with
Apple II series affairs. They provide a forum for users to compare
notes, ask questions, and share insights. The Csa2 groups include ...

comp.sys.apple2 (Csa2)       - Discussion plus questions & answers
                               relating to all Apple II computers

comp.sys.apple2.comm         - Communications and networking related
comp.sys.apple2.gno          - Discussion of GNO/ME, a UNIX-like
                               multi-tasking environment for IIgs
                               (see file gno.v...)

comp.sys.apple2.marketplace  - Buying, selling, and promoting
                               Apple II and related products

comp.sys.apple2.programmer   - Discussion relating to any aspect of
                               programming the Apple II

comp.sys.apple2.usergroups   - Discussion relating to Apple II

comp.emulators.apple2        - The unofficial 'Apple II games stuff'
                               newsgroup features discussions of
                               Apple II games as well as of Apple II
                               emulation on PC, Mac, and other

alt.emulators.ibmpc.apple2   - Discussion about the use of Apple II
                               emulation software/hardware on a PC.

comp.binaries.apple2         - Public Domain and Shareware Software
                               for all Apple II's in Text-encoded
                               (binscii) form.

--Dan DeMaggio, David Empson, Al Kalal, Rubywand


003- What software do I need to get started and how do I get it?

     If you bought an Apple II with no software at all, then, at the
very least, you will need to get diskettes which boot DOS 3.3 and ProDOS
and which include copy utilities (e.g. Copy II Plus). Probably, too, you
will need a utility named "ShrinkIt" to unShrink compressed Apple II
files you download and an Apple II telecom utility (e.g. ZLink, ProTerm,
...) to handle file transfers from your PC or Mac to your Apple II. 

     Aside from Apple II user friends, there are many places you can get
the above, as well as all sorts of other Apple II utility, game, etc.

1. Apple II Users Groups maintain software libraries of utility and
games diskettes you can copy.

2. Some schools and universities have Apple II areas where you can copy
system and utility diskettes.

3. Many sellers of original and second-hand software advertise on the
comp.sys.apple2.marketplace newsgroup and/or maintain web sites you can
browse. Be sure to check the listing of vendors presented later on.

4. If requested via email, regular posters to Csa2 will often send one
or more 'getting started' diskettes which will boot DOS 3.3 and/or
ProDOS and which include some copy, telecom, etc. utilities plus games.
(Expect to pay mailing and materials costs.)

5. The Apple II archive sites listed below maintain large collections of
software which you can download via PC or Mac and transfer to your Apple



004- How and where do I download and upload Apple II files?

     How: By far, the easiest and quickest way is to access software
sites on the net using a PC or Mac. Files can be moved to and from your
Apple II via a NULL-modem connection with the net computer. If you use a
Mac, you may have the option of transferring the files via a ProDOS or
HFS diskette or an HFS Zip disk. (For details on file transfes,
downloading, and uploading, see the FAQs files Csa2T1TCOM.txt and

     Where: Today, most users upload software, info files, etc. to one
or more of the major Apple II ftp software archive sites. Other options
include comp.binaries.apple2 and BBS systems. The software archives and
web sites maintained by developers are good places to obtain software.
(See Question 5 for site URLs.)



005- Where can I get Apple II software and information on the net?

Major Apple II Information and Software Sites

Apple2 Caltech- large collection of II/IIgs games and utilities

Asimov- #1 archive of Apple II 8-bit games and utilities in
  emulator DSK and file formats; plus emulators and emu info

Asimov Mirrors- sites which mirror Asimov

Asimov-GS- major archive of IIgs games, system, and other software
  as well as being a Csa2 FAQs mirror
  for FAQs mirror ...

Ground  Apple2 U. Iowa- the largest Apple II archive and home site
  of the Csa2 FAQs; maintains II/IIgs games, utilities, HC/HS
  stacks, music files, ..., and information plus separate
  collections including the AOL A2 archives

Ground Mirrors- sites which mirror Ground
GS WorldView 'zine- II/IIgs applications articles, games, utilities,
  A2-2000 archive, and links; home site for 1WSW Apple2 U. Kaiserslautern- II/IIgs games, utilities, and
  emulator wares

USA2WUG- Apple II Help & FAQs Collective; Csa2 FAQs mirror
  for FAQs mirror ...

Other Important Apple II Sites

Apple2 U. Kentucky- A2 archive

Apple2 U. Michagan- A2 archive

Apple2 U. Washington- comp.binaries.apple2 access

Apple II Help Page- Info and links; Csa2 FAQs in HTML 

Apple II Lessons & Software- BASIC Lessons and A2 software

Apple II Programmer's Archive- language software

Apple II WWW and FTP Sites- comprehensive A2 & A3 links list

Apple Computer- mainly, GS system software

Apple Computer- license information

Delphi- on-line service which permits A2 net access
  for "A2 (Apple II)" forum ...
  for "A2Pro" - Apple II Programmers forum ...

Emu-Apple II Emulator Page- Apple II emulator software and info

Emu-Apple II Emulator Resource Guide- Apple II emulator info

Emu-Moro's Emulator Page- XGS .2MG utils, Sys6, games, and links

Home of the Apple II- Apple II manual reprints, new user info, ...,
  and message board

International Apple II BBS List- A2 BBS sites and phone numbers

KansasFest Web Page- KansasFest information

KulaSoft- Stocks Eamon Adventures, A2 software, Index

L.J. Silicon's Treasure Chest- Apple II software 

Mother of All Apple II Web Pages- links

Nova Scotia Apple Users Group Page-- II/IIgs utilities

Odessa Entertainment- on-line entertainment 'zines

Texas II- Appleworks products and information, Y2K info, and
  home site for Beverly Cadieux's Apple II Mail Group (A2MG)

The Apple II Classic Games Page- large listing of classic
  A2 games with screenshots.   

The Giant List- major listing of games and authors

Treasure Chest Project- Willie Yeo's list of A2 software
  reclassified as freeware or shareware

Unofficial, Unauthorized, Apple Online Museum- Greg Cifu's
  pages of Apple II machine history, anecdotes, and pictures

Upgrade the GS Project- Home page for input and discussion
  relating to IIgs upgrades



006- What is an Apple II: The KIM

My Ex bought a KIM in ... had to be 1976, 'cause that's the year we
split. He played Hunt the Wumpus on it. I couldn't see the point of
messing with those red LEDs at the time.

Nancy Crawford,  Csa2 post on 27 December, 1995

     KIM (for "Keyboard Input Monitor") was a 6502 'development system'
release in 1976 by MOS Technology. A single board with six 7-segment LED
displays, it soon had a wide following of avid experimenters who wrote
programs like Jim Butterfield's "Lunar Lander" and Stan Ockers's "Hunt
the Wumpus" and published numerous articles in magazines like Byte and
KiloBaud describing hardware add-ons. For many, KIM was the introduction
to 6502 computing which would, in a few years, lead to becoming an Apple
II user. --Rubywand


007- What is an Apple II: The Apple I

     The original Apple was not much more than a board.  You had to
supply your own keyboard, monitor and case. It sold for $666.66, but now
they are worth much more as a collector's item. --Dan DeMaggio


008- What is an Apple II: The Apple ][ and Apple ][+

     The II and II+ are the computers that launched the Apple II line.
They have the 6502 microprocessor, ability to do Hi-res and Lo-res color
graphics, sound, joystick input, and casette tape I/O. They have a total
of eight expansion Slots for adding peripherials such as the Disk ][
controller, MockingBoard, serial I/O, and printer interface. Clock speed
is 1MHz and, with Apple's Language Card installed, standard memory size
is 64kB.

     The distinction between the ][ and ][+ is the installed ROMs. The
][ starts you in the Monitor program and includes in-ROM Integer BASIC.
The ][+ has the AutoStart ROM which tries to locate and boot a diskette
upon startup and defaults to Applesoft BASIC which is included in-ROM.
Many ][ owners upgraded to the ][+ ROMs.

     Apple ][ and ][+ computers can run thousands of games, utilities,
and other programs created to run under Apple DOS-- chiefly, DOS 3.3.
Both machines can, also, run under ProDOS through v1.9 so long as the
software does not require features of an "enhanced" 128k IIe. For
instance, you can run Appleworks if you have more than 128K RAM
installed and a program called PlusWorks. However, the ][ can not run
BASIC programs under ProDOS since Applesoft must be in ROM.      

Recommended configuration: 16K "language card" (in Slot 0), an 80-column
video card (not the same as a //e Extended 80-column card), shift key
modification (a wire running from shift key to game port), modified
character ROMs to display lower case, composite color monitor, Disk ][
controller card, two 5.25" Disk ][ or compatible drives, parallel
printer interface card, and parallell-interface printer. You can add
memory beyond 64k in various ways, but many programs that "require 128K"
probably will not work, no matter how much RAM you have. You can also
add accelerators like the SpeeDemon or Rocket/Zip. --Dan DeMaggio, David
Empson, Rubywand


009- What is an Apple II: The "Black Apple"

     Bell & Howell marketed the "Black Apple" made by Apple. It is an
Apple II+ done in black with some extra audio/video connections to fit
with projectors, etc. made by B&H-- mainly for use in the classroom. A
nice feature is the "handle" attached to the back. It contains a few
power outlets, allowing the CPU, Monitor, etc., to be controlled with
one switch. Evidently, 5000-10,000 units were produced. --Coaxial, Mike
McGovern, Rubywand


010- What is an Apple II: The Apple //e

     The //e comes in two flavors: Enhanced and unenhanced. When you
start your computer, the unenhanced IIe displays "Apple ][" at the top
of screen; the Enhanced IIe displays "Apple //e". Apple made an
Enhancement kit to upgrade an unenhanced to Enhanced by replacing 4
chips (CPU [65C02], Video ROM [MouseText], and new Monitor/Applesoft
ROMs). Apple Resource Center sells a IIe Enhancement kit for $20.00. 

     The current IIe operating system is ProDOS-8. (The IIe can also run
DOS 3.3, earlier DOS's, and Pascal.) A lot of ProDOS software requires
an Enhanced //e, and sometimes 128K, too.

     A IIe Enhancement Kit does not include any extra RAM. You can
expand a 64k IIe to the standard 128k required for a fully Enhanced IIe
via an Extended 80-column card. It plugs into the Aux Connector on the
motherboard. Alltech ($19.00), MC Price Breakers ($14.95), and
Sequential Systems ($19.95) sell such cards.

     Except for being able to type and display lower-case characters,
the unenhanced IIe is very similar to the II+. A 128k Enhanced IIe adds
a number of features including 80-column firmware and 16-color
double-lores and double hires display capability.  

     The Apple //e remains useful for four major reasons:

 1) It runs AppleWorks, a simple to use, yet sophisticated
Spreadsheet/Word Processor/Database.

 2) It can run many games and other entertainment software products.

 3) There are many Apples in schools-- an example is Louis Cornelio's
room at Clairemont High School ( )-- so
there is a ton of Apple II educational software.

 4) It is was and will always be a _Personal_ computer.  You can learn
as little or as much as you want, and nothing stops you from learning
about every nook and cranny in it. Ask any big name programmer in MS/DOS
or Mac where they learned to program.  Most of them taught themselves on
a good ol' Apple II.

Recommended configuration: Extended 80 Column card (gives you 128K) or
RamWorks (512K to 1MB RAM), Enhancement kit (for unenhanced IIe), and a
composite color monitor which can display decent 80-colume text, Super
Serial card, Disk ][ controller card, two 5.25" Disk ][ or compatible
drives, parallel printer interface card, and parallell-interface
printer. A Hard Drive is recommended if you use a lot of different
programs. Heavy Appleworks users should add the hard disk, extra RAM,
and a 4MHz or better accelerator (like the Rocket Chip, Zip Chip or
TransWarp). --Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand


011- What is an Apple II: The Apple //c and IIc+

     The //c and IIc+ are compact 'luggable' versions of an Enhanced
//e, with many built-in 'cards'. Included are 2 serial ports, a mouse
port, a disk port and 128K of RAM. Support for the original Apple
casette tape I/O is gone. The //c has a built-in 5.25" drive while the
IIc+ has a built-in 3.5" drive. 

     The IIc+ has a built-in accelerator that runs at 4 MHz (vs. the
//c's 1MHz) making it the fastest Apple II as well as faster than any of
the A2 clones. (To boot your IIc+ at 'regular', 1MHz, speed, include the
Escape key in the usual boot keypresses-- i.e.
OpenApple-CTRL-ESC-RESET.) The IIc+, which was introduced after the
IIgs, also allows daisey chaining the GS Apple 3.5" drive along with
5.25" drives.

     The //c and IIc+ run just about all of the DOS 3.3, ProDOS, "128k"
software, etc. that an Enhanced //e runs plus the few //c-only software
releases. However, the use of certain locations for storing system
variables and ROM differences means that //c series machines will not
run a number of old games designed for the ][ and ][+ which the IIe and
IIgs will run. 

     Even though //c machines don't have slots, you can still add extra
memory (there's room under the keyboard) and a hard drive (through the
disk port--a bit slow by ordinary standards, but usable.  Hard to find
though.. Was made by Chinook). There is also a for-//c "D" version of
MockingBoard you can plug in to get much improved sound and music from
software supporting the board, and a module you can attach to convert
output to RF for using a TV as a monitor.

Recommended configuration: A composite color monitor which can display
decent 80-colume text, 1 MB RAM, and, maybe, a hard drive. For the //c,
add a second 5.25" drive; for the IIc+, add a second 3.5" drive and two
5.25" drives. --Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand


012- What is an Apple II: The Laser 128EX and 'EX/2

     While not made by Apple, these Lasers can run just about anything
that an Enhanced //e can run. They are as luggable as a //c and include
built-in 'cards'. They are also fast; the entire motherboard runs at
3.6Mhz. If you want to use a card in the single expansion Slot, you may
have to disable the internal UDC (for 3.5" drives) or the internal 1MB
memory expansion.

     Unlike the EX model, which supports one additional disk drive, the
EX/2 supports as many daisychained drives as a IIgs and has a built in
BRAM control panel for saving settings. The EX/2 also has a built in
3.5" disk drive, a MIDI port, and a video port which can support analog
RGB and digital CGA monitors as well as an LCD display. --Supertimer,
Dan DeMaggio


013- What is an Apple II: The Apple IIgs

     The IIgs (or "GS") represents a giant leap in the Apple II line. 
It can still run //e software, but has a better processor (16-bit), a
new super-hires graphics mode, a toolbox in ROM (just like the Mac), a
32-oscillator Ensoniq sound chip, and a base speed of 2.8MHz.

     GS can run DOS 3.3, ProDOS, Pascal, and any other OS the earlier
8-bit models can run. Like the //c series, it does not support the
original Apple casette tape I/O. GS is the only A2 machine which can run
GS/OS. Originally known as "ProDOS 16", GS/OS is a sophisticated 'mouse
and windows' operating system which looks very much like the Macintosh
OS and PC Windows. The current version of GS/OS is "System 6.0.1".

     The first GS's were released in the Fall of 1986. The batches
produced until mid-late 1987 became known as "ROM 00" machines after
release of the "ROM 01" models. When you boot a ROM-01 GS, the startup
screen shows "ROM Version 01"; when you boot a ROM-00 GS the startup
screen says nothing about ROM version.

     The original GS's came in cases marked "Limited Edition" with Steve
Wozniak's signature. Often, these are referred to as "Woz GS's". A
relatively small number of users chose Apple's option to upgrade their
IIe's with a motherboard swap. The swap included "IIgs" labels users
could substitute for "IIe" in the case insert.

     At the time of the ROM-01 change-over, Apple supplied a
ROM-00-to-ROM-01 upgrade service free. It consists of swapping in a new
ROM and a new Video Graphics Controller ("VGC") IC. ROM-00 machines
which have not had the upgrade can not run modern GS software-- the ROM
must be upgraded. Alltech (760-724-2404; ) sells a
ROM-01 'upgrade kit' consisting of the 01 ROM for $29.00.

     The VGC upgrade is not required for software compatibility, and is
not needed for all machines anyway. It is supposed to fix cosmetic
problems in monochrome double-hires graphics mode (pink flickering or
fringing on what is supposed to be a black and white screen).  On some
machines the VGC swap also fixes some color combination problems in
80-column text mode.

     Whether via the upgrade or original purchase of a newer GS, by late
1987 nearly all GS users were 'on the same page'. That is, we had the
ROM-01 platform with its base 256kB RAM plus the official Apple 1MB
Expansion Memory Board plugged into the Memory Expansion Slot for a
total of 1.25MB of fully-accessible system RAM. For the next couple of
years, practically all GS software was designed to launch from 3.5"
diskette under "ProDOS-16" and to fit within the 1.25MB of RAM everyone
was assumed to have installed. 

     In 1989 Apple introduced the "ROM 3" GS-- the startup screen shows
"ROM Version 3". (No ROM-02 GS was ever released). The only major
improvement over ROM-01 is more base RAM-- you get 1MB instead of 256kB.
This is a very nice benefit. It means that a ROM 3 with a 4MB Mem Exp
Board will have 5MB of fully accessible RAM whereas a ROM-01 can have
4.25MB of fully-accessible RAM. In effect, the ROM 3 owner gets a 'free'
800kB RAM disk. As Mitch Spector notes in his listing of ROM 3 features
(see in CSA2HDWHACK.TXT), the newer GS offers a number of other nice
pluses with the only significant minus being incompatibility with a few
older GS programs. 

     Chiefly, ROM 3 is a 1989 re-do of ROM-01 featuring more streamlined
hardware and more built-in firmware. (Upon booting, the current system
software applies in-RAM patches matched to each ROM version to achieve
nearly identical operation.)  Very few ROM-01 owners felt any urge to
move to ROM 3. Even today, the vast majority of installed GS's are
ROM-01 machines. 

     The 1990's have seen wide adoption of four major GS enhancements:

OS- After years of foot-dragging, Apple finally produced a decent 16-bit
GS operating system with release of System 5.0. Within a few years this
evolved into today's System 6 (System 6.0.1). System 6 has won wide
acceptance as a relatively stable OS which, at last, allows GS users to
access many of the features of GS computing promised back in 1986.
Whereas earlier OS's can 'fit' on a GS with 1MB of Expansion memory,
System 6 really requires something like 2.5MB RAM to be worth

Memory- Driven, in part, by the need for more memory to run System 6,
4MB became the standard size of installed Memory Expansions. Except for
school GS's and GS's taken out of circulation and tucked away in
closets, the old Apple 1MB Expansion Boards have long ago been replaced
with 4MB boards.

Hard Disk- As with memory, the size of newer versions of GS/OS supplied
a strong push toward adding a hard disk. Software was becoming larger,
too, and there was so much of it that making everything work from
diskette became impossibly cumbersome. Lower HD prices, attractive SCSI
interfaces such as RamFAST, and low-cost, easy single-card IDE solutions
such as the Focus "Hard Card" have helped make the hard disk a standard,
expected peripheral on today's GS.

Acceleration- Few commercial software offerings actually sought to push
GS users to higher speeds; and, as a result, users went for years
feeling no great need for Applied Engineering's expensive Transwarp
accelerator. The arrival of Zip Technology's lower-cost ZipGS board
together with a clear need for more speed to handle System 6 sparked a
nearly overnight 'acceleration revolution'. Today, an accelerator
running at 8MHz or better is considered, very nearly, to be a necessary
IIgs enhancement.     

Recommended configuration: ROM-01 or ROM 3 with 4MB Memory Expansion
board-- i.e. 4.25MB (ROM-01) or 5MB (ROM 3) of total system RAM, RamFAST
SCSI + 120MB or larger SCSI hard disk OR 120MB or larger HD-on-a-card
IDE drive (e.g. Alltech's Focus Hard Card or SHH's Turbo IDE series)
with System 6.0.1 installed, 8MHz/32k TransWarp or 9MHz/32k ZipGS or
better accelerator board, Stereo Card, Imagewriter II printer, two 3.5"
and two 5.25" diskette drives.

A minimum GS system that will run many older wares and still deliver a
decent operating system is a ROM-01 GS with the Apple 1MB Memory
Expansion board, two 3.5" drives, at least one 5.25" drive, and 
Imagewriter II printer, which boots GS/OS 5.04 (now called "System
5.04") from 3.5" diskette. --Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand, David Empson, Randy


014- What is an Apple II: The Apple IIe Emulation Card

     This is a 'IIe on a card' plug-in that fits into Mac LC and most
subsequent machines that have the LC Processor Direct Slot (PDS). This
includes 020, 030, and 040 machines. It lets one run Apple //e software.

     Many of these cards are sold today without documentation. In case
you've just plugged one into your Mac Color Classic, etc., it will help
to know that pressing Command-Control-Escape gets you to the Preferences

     The Apple IIe Emulation Card is actually more like a //c because
the card is not an expandable machine like a //e. There is a place on
the back of the card to plug in a UniDisk 5.25" and a joystick.  Because
the graphics are handled by the Mac, animation may be slow if you don't
have a decent Mac. --Dan DeMaggio, David Empson, Owen Aaland, Edward


Related FAQs Resources: R024GSSPECS.TXT (text file)

015- Where can I find a compact listing of Apple IIgs

     Apple IIgs specifications are described in the FAQs resource file

-- Supertimer


016- What is "8 bit" and "16 bit"?

     Number of bits usually indicates how big a chunk of data a
computer's main microprocessor can manipulate. The Apple IIgs is based
on the 65C816 microprocessor and is considered to be a 16-bit machine.
Previous Apple ]['s are based upon pure 8-bit microprocessors such as
the 6502 and 65C02. These are considered to be 8-bit machines. Sometimes
II+ or IIe or IIc software is called "8-bit software".

     The 65C816 is a member of the 6502 family which includes expanded
registers and adds many new commands while retaining the ability to go
into 8-bit mode. So; the GS can run most 8-bit wares designed for older
Apple II machines as well as newer 16-bit wares. Meanwhile, 8-bit
machines are pretty well limited to 8-bit wares. --Rubywand


017- How can I tell what version my computer is?

Apple //e:

     The major division is between the Enhanced and unenhanced //e
models. Look at your computer while re-booting.  If it says "APPLE ][",
it is not enhanced. The enhanced computers will say "Apple //e". You can
upgrade it yourself by getting the Apple //e Enhancement kit. (It
contains 4 chips to replace on your motherboard.)

     Many newer programs will not work unless you have an Enhanced //e.
If you have a //c or GS, or a Laser 128, you have Enhanced //e
compatibility. There are also some older //e's that are not capable of
double-hires.  Check the serial number on the motherboard (in the back,
by the power-on led). If it is 820-0064-A, you must change the
motherboard to upgrade (unless you have the PAL version). Serial #s like
820-0064-B or 820-0087-A are the plain //e, and the version with the
grey case comes pre-Enhanced.

week 26 1983:
        820-0073-A (c) 1982   Colour killer switch soldered to open
        B-607-0664            oscillator position on PCB.

week 38 1983:
        820-0073-B (c) 1982   Colour killer switch near RHS of PCB.
        B-607-0264            All chips socketed.

week  7 1985:
        820-0073   (c) 1984   PCB marked for enhanced ROMs & 65c02
        B-607-0264           (mine had old ROMs and 6502). RAM &
                              some TTL soldered in.

     All three work with double res graphics. (Apart from the revision
letter vanishing, most chips being soldered in and the silkscreened ROM
numbers, I can see no difference between the last two PCBs mentioned.)

Apple //c:

     Go into Basic and type "PRINT PEEK (64447)" and press return.  If
it says 255, you have a very old //c.  See your dealer about getting an
upgrade (tell them that the Apple authorization number is ODL660). If it
says 0, you can do 3.5" drives, but you don't have the memory expansion
connector. If it says 3 You have the memory expansion.  If it says 4,
you have the latest model of the //c. If it says 5, you have a //c+.

Apple IIgs:

     There are 3 major versions of the GS: Check the initial power-up
screen. It will probably say ROM-01 or ROM 3. If it does not say either,
you have a ROM-00 model. You must upgrade a ROM-00 machine in order to
run current system software. The ROM-01 has 256K on the motherboard,
while the ROM 3 has 1 MB on the motherboard. Most of the enhancements of
the ROM 3 (except the 1MB, of course) can be added to the ROM-01 simply
by booting up with current system software. --Dan DeMaggio


018- How can I find out about using my Apple II?

     Of course, you can peruse the newsgroup FAQs Q&A and check out the
Apple II internet sites listed earlier. Charles Hartleys's Apple II
Lessons & Software is a good example of the latter. Also, Charles "Dr.
Tom" Turley is building a collection of New User info on his site at ... .

     Still, there is really no substitute for having the technical
manual for your particular Apple II or clone. The manual for the ][ and
][+ is the Apple ][ Reference Manual. For the IIe and IIc you want
Apple's Technical Reference Manual for your machine. For the IIgs you
will want, at least, the IIgs Hardware Reference and IIgs Firmware

     Naturally, you will want to get manuals and materials covering DOS,
ProDOS, BASIC, and many other areas relating to your Apple II. Below is
a decent 'getting started' sampling: 

Applesoft BASIC and Assembly Language

Assembly Lines: The Book  by Wagner
Basic Programming Reference Manual  from Apple
65816/65802 Assembly Language Programming by Fischer

DOS, ProDOS, and GS/OS

Apple IIgs GS/OS Technical Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Beneath Apple DOS  by Worth & Lechner
Beneath Apple ProDOS  by Worth & Lechner
Exploring Apple GS/OS and ProDOS 8  by Little
ProDOS Inside and Out  by Doms and Weishaar
ProDOS Technical Reference Manual (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
The DOS Manual  from Apple

General Apple II

Apple II User's Guide  by Poole, Martin, and Cook
Beagle Bros "Peeks, Pokes, and Pointers" (poster)  by Beagle Bros
What's Where in the Apple II?  by William F. Luebbert 

     Some technical manuals and other materials can be obtained in
original or reprint form from Byte Works. Most Apple II books, etc. also
turn up for sale on comp.sys.apple2.marketplace, at used book shops, and
at local Users Group swap meets. A few items, such as Reference Cards
and posters, can be downloaded in Text or HTML form from Apple II

     Another good resource is a subscription to an Apple II newsletter
or magazine (see Question 20); and, don't overlook collections of major
Apple II magazines published through the 1980's (e.g. inCider, Nibble,
Computist, etc.). They are virtual encyclopedias covering many areas of
II computing.   

     Often, the easiest, quickest way to an awswer for some Apple II
question is to 'just ask it' on comp.sys.apple2. There is no Csa2 rule
about making sure your question is hard enough or reading the FAQs
first. Supplying information is the main purpose of the newsgroup.

     But, suppose you have zilch info, do not feel like looking through
the FAQs, and want to start Now. The following _may_ be all you need to
get going with some game or utility from diskette:

o The Disk Controller Card for Apple ][, ][+, and IIe goes into Slot 6
(next to last Slot on the right when viewed from the front). Drive 1
plugs into the top connector with the ribbon side of the cable plug
facing out. Plug in the cable(s) before plugging in the card so that you
are sure the connector and plug line up correctly. 

o On the IIgs, the 3.5" drive(s) plug in first, then, the 5.25"

o Unless a hard disk is installed, most Apple II's try to boot a
diskette and start DOS 3.3, ProDOS, or GS/OS when turned ON. (On the old
Apple ][ you can type in 6 Control-P RETURN to boot from the Monitor,
assuming your Controller Card is in Slot 6. To press Control-P, press
and hold Control, then P, then release both keys.)

o Most, but not all, diskettes are bootable. If one diskette doesn't
boot, try another. If no diskettes boot, use a Radio Shack Head Cleaner
diskette to clean the drive head(s).

o If the prompt you see is ], you are in Applesoft BASIC; > indicates
Integer BASIC; and * indicates the Monitor. If both Integer BASIC and
Applesoft are in memory, you can enter FP to switch from Integer to
Applesoft and INT to switch from Applesoft to Integer. To go from either
BASIC to the Monitor, enter CALL-151. To start the current BASIC from
the Monitor, enter Control-B. To go back to BASIC with program and
variables in tact from the Monitor, enter Control-C.
o Except for the ][ and ][+, you must press Control-RESET to do a Reset.

o To boot a diskette when viewing a BASIC prompt, you can enter PR#6 to
boot a drive associated with Slot 6-- usually a 5.25" drive-- and PR#5
to boot a drive associated with Slot 5-- usually a 3.5" drive.



019- Where do I find out about Apple II Users Groups?

     Many Apple II users groups continue to meet, especially in major
cities and on university campi. If a local group listing is 'missing'
from your phone book, check for a Mac users group-- a number of Apple II
groups merged with their Mac counterparts.

     The Apple User Group Connection (800-538-9696 ext 500) can tell you
the closest Apple II (or Macintosh) User Group. Several web sites
maintain user group lists. Two such sites are ...

     Of course, you can always post a question to Csa2 or to
comp.sys.apple2.usergroups. --Rubywand


020- Where can I get Apple II parts, boards, and software?

All Electronics (800-826-5432; ) major surplus
and new parts seller- switches, LCD panels, connectors, transformers,
caps, IIgs-type lithium batteries, etc. 

Alltech (760-724-2404;  accepts on-line orders) sells
all kinds of replacement parts for Apple II's as well as the Focus Hard
Card drives, CD-ROM drives, cables, memory boards & IC's, diskettes, ...

Apple Resource Center "The ARC" (800-753-0114; )
sells Apple II computers and peripherals.

Auction sites which handle Apple II items on the internet

AV Systems (  email: game, education, utility software for Apple
II computers
B&R Computer Services (619-225-8281; ) sells Apple II computers,
peripherals, and software.

Stephen Buggie (505-863-2390) sells the famous Buggie Power Supplies,
Buggie Drives, and does disk drive conversions.

Byte Works (505-898-8183;  email: sells the respected Orca series of Apple II languages
and support software including the new GS BASIC.

Catweasel ( ) makes and
sells a disk drive controller intended for reading A2 diskettes on
non-A2 drives.

Charlie's AppleSeeds (619-566-0387; 9081 Hadley Place, San Diego CA
92126-1523; Chuck Newby's email: sells Apple II hard
disks and controllers, floppy drives, ... and ProSel, ProSel-16

Comp.sys.apple2.marketplace is the Csa2 newsgroup for buying and selling
Apple II hardware and software.

Creative Solutions (937-429-5759; ) Apple II hardware,
software, and repairs

Digi-Key (800-344-4539; IC's and general parts

DigiSoft Innovations ( 
email: Jim Maricondo at continues to sell the
Golden Orchard CD and is working on GO-II.

Dirt-Cheap Drives (800-786-1160; ) 2.5"
IDE drives

Effective Shareware Solutions (602-274-6905; ) Apple II music wares

Gene Ehrich's On-Line Computer Garage Sale (email:; ) sells Apple II (C-64, PC, etc.)
hardware, software, manuals, and other items.

Halted Specialties (800-442-5833; ) sells
electronic parts- sockets, cables, plugs, caps, Parallax BASIC stamp,
SCSI cables, ... good prices for 74xxx, 65xx, etc. IC's

Hudson's Hobby Games (P.O. Box 121503, Arlington, Texas, 76012;
817-461-0126; email: sells Old Apple II games in
original boxes

InTrec Software (888-PROTERM; ) sells ProTerm A2
and high-speed GS modem cable; the "InTrec Store" sells used II/IIgs
hardware and software at good prices

Jameco (800-831-4242; ) Apple II and general parts

JDR Microdevices (800-538-5000; ) Apple II and
general parts supplier

Kitchen Sink Software (614-891-2111; ) Apple
II Software

KulaSoft (808-595-8131; ) Eamon
Adventures, Kula Index, software collections, tutorials, and books

L.A.Trade (800-433-3726; ) sells memory,
including "Zip" package 1MB x 4 DRAM used by the AE GS-RAM III 4MB

Steven Lichter (Apple Elite II BBS 909-359-5338; email:
offers GBBS/LLUCE support and software.

Lynxmotion (104 Partridge Road, Pekin, IL 61554-1403; 309-382-1816 ) sells Robot kits, Robot arms, servos,
controllers, ... for PC but adaptable for Apple II

MC Price Breakers (360-837-3042; ) sells memory
boards, high-speed GS modem cables, and other Apple II hardware

MECI (800-344-6324; ) surplus electronic parts-
fans, tubes, solenoids, IC sockets, 50-25 SCSI cables and adaptors, ...

Midwestern Diskette (800-221-6332; )
diskettes, including 5.25" DSDD diskettes

Mouser Electronics (800-346-6873; ) major IC and
general parts supplier

MPJA/ Marlin P. Jones (800-652-6733; many power
supplies, NULL modem, Parallax BASIC stamp, misc kits, LED displays, LCD
panels, ...

Newark Electronics (800-463-9275; ) major
electronic parts supplier 

Ninjaforce Entertainment ( )
Ninjaforce software for IIgs

Pre-Owned Electronics (800-274-5343) sells a variety of peripherals and

Redmond cable (206-882-2009 ) makes and sells
standard & custom Apple II cables.

Scantron Quality Computers (800-777-3642 )
Appleworks, Appleworks-GS vendor.

Sequential Systems (303-666-4549;  email:  sells 4-8MB GS memory boards, RAMfast SCSI
interface, and other peripheral boards.

Seven Hills Software (850-575-0566; ) develops and sells IIgs

Shareware Solutions II (  email: sells Convert 3200 plus games, boxed Old game originals,
the Golden Orchard CD-ROM, and other wares.

SHH Systeme, Germany ( ) sells
Turbo IDE and other HD controller cards, Blue Disk, TWGS Accelerator
upgrades, and repairs.

Shreve Systems (800-227-3971; ) sells II
computers, peripherals, parts and accessories.

Software and More (916-725-0228;
) sells Apple II hardware and software.

Sun Remarketing (800-821-3221;  accepts on-line
orders) sells Apple II parts and peripherals.

Texas II/Kingwood Micro Software (2503 Sherbrooke Lane, McKinney, TX
75070; 972-562-6335; ) develops and sells
classic Appleworks v3.0-v5.1 support software. 

Vernier Software (503-297-5317; )  sells project
books and components.

Wayne's Computer (315-689-7899; ) sells
Apple II computers, peripherals, and software.

Western Design Center (602-962-4545; ) makes and
sells 65C816 microprocessor used in IIgs and for accelerator upgrades. 

William K. Bradford Co. (800-421-2009; ) Apple
II educational software

--Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand


021- Where do I get Apple II books and periodicals?

The Applebyter newsletter (Applebyters Computer Club, P.O. Box 2092,
Davenport, IA  52809
) is a vintage monthly newsletter.

Apple Blossom is a bi-montly mini-magazine edited by Steve Cavenaugh.
(Apple Blossom Publishing, P.O. Box 120434, Boston, MA 02112-0434;  email:

Byte Works (505-898-8183; ) major source
for Apple II series manuals, other Apple books, and Orca languages,
manuals, and support. (

Composition is an on-line 'zine devoted to GS MIDIsynth and synthLAB
music ( )
published by Gregory Heald.

Dark Castle (Wolborgenmate 72, 7006 DK Doetinchem, The Netherlands;
+31-314-365145) is a quarterly mini-magazine edited by Doede Boomsma.

Eamon Adventurer's Guild newsletter (7625 Hawkhaven Dr., Clemmons, NC 
27012; 910-766-7490) is the quarterly journal for the famous adventuring
series edited by Thomas Zuchowski. (email: or 

GS WorldView ( is an Apple II/IIgs
web 'zine edited by Charles Turley 

Juiced GS (2217 Lakeview Dr., Sullivan, IN  47882) is a quarterly
mini-magazine edited by Max Jones. ( ;

Nuts & Volts Magazine (800-783-4624; ) not A2
specific, but good info on robot making and other interesting projects;
also, a good source for surplus electronic parts ads

Shareware Solutions II (166 Alpine Street, San Rafael, CA 94901  email: is a bi-monthly
mini-magazine edited by Joe Kohn

Texas II (2503 Sherbrooke Lane, McKinney, TX 75070; 972-562-6335; ) is an Appleworks newsletter published by
Beverly Cadieux (