Apple II FrequentlyAskedQuestions: Main Hall-1 ... Start Here!

Csa2 FAQs-on-Ground file: Csa21MAIN.txt  rev013 3/28/1999

FAQs Contents is Main Hall-2

The Csa2 (comp.sys.apple2) Usenet newsgroup Frequently Asked
 Questions files are compiled by the Ground Apple II site,
 1997 - 1999.

The Csa2 FAQs may be freely distributed.

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              Csa2 FAQs on Ground "Main Hall"

                     Update: 28 March 1999

     Welcome to the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup Frequently Asked Questions! This
file is called "Main Hall" because it's your starting-off point for accessing
the Csa2 FAQs.

     You can peruse a listing of FAQs files along with lists of questions
answered; OR, you can check out some 'getting started' and 'what's where?'
Questions & Answers immediately below. Whenever you like, you can skip to the
FAQs Files & Contents area in Main Hall-2.

 001- What is a FAQ?
 002- What is comp.sys.apple2?
 003- What software do I need to get starter and how do I get it?
 004- How do I download and upload Apple II files on the net?
 005- Where can I get Apple II software and information on the net?
 006- What is an Apple II: The KIM
 007- What is an Apple II: The Apple I
 008- What is an Apple II: The Apple ][ and Apple ][+
 009- What is an Apple II: The "Black Apple"
 010- What is an Apple II: The Apple //e
 011- What is an Apple II: The Apple //c and IIc+
 012- What is an Apple II: The Laser 128EX and 'EX/2?
 013- What is an Apple II: The Apple IIgs
 014- What is an Apple II: The Apple ][e Emulation Card
 015- Where can I find a compact listing of Apple IIgs specs?
 016- What is "8 bit" and "16 bit"?
 017- How can I tell what version my computer is?
 018- How can I find out about using my Apple II?
 019- Where do I find out about Apple II Users Groups?
 020- Where can I get Apple II parts, boards, and software?
 021- Where do I get Apple II books and periodicals?

001- What is a FAQ?

     A "FAQ" is a "Frequently Asked Question". The Csa2 FAQs is a collection of
topics files which seeks to supply answers to questions about the Apple II
series of computers and Apple II computing.


002- What is comp.sys.apple2?

     Comp.sys.apple2 (Csa2) is a USENET newsgroup.  USENET posts originate from
your local newsreader and spread to hundreds of thousands of machines
throughout the Internet, FidoNet, ProLine BBS system, etc..

     There are several newsgroups in the Csa2 family, all concerned with Apple
II series affairs. They provide a forum for users to compare notes, ask
questions, and share insights. The Csa2 groups include ...

comp.sys.apple2 (Csa2)       - Discussion plus questions & answers
                               relating to all Apple II computers

comp.sys.apple2.comm         - Communications and networking related

comp.sys.apple2.gno          - Discussion of GNO/ME, a UNIX-like
                               multi-tasking environment for IIgs
                               (see file gno.v...)

comp.sys.apple2.marketplace  - Buying, selling, and promoting
                               Apple II and related products

comp.sys.apple2.programmer   - Discussion relating to any aspect of
                               programming the Apple II

comp.sys.apple2.usergroups   - Discussion relating to Apple II

comp.emulators.apple2        - The unofficial 'Apple II games stuff'
                               newsgroup features discussions of
                               Apple II games as well as of Apple II
                               emulation on PC, Mac, and other

alt.emulators.ibmpc.apple2   - Discussion about the use of Apple II
                               emulation software/hardware on a PC.

comp.binaries.apple2         - Public Domain and Shareware Software
                               for all Apple II's in Text-encoded
                               (binscii) form.

--Dan DeMaggio, David Empson, Al Kalal, Rubywand


003- What software do I need to get started and how do I get it?

     If you bought an Apple II with no software at all, then, at the very
least, you will need to get diskettes which boot DOS 3.3 and ProDOS and which
include copy utilities (e.g. Copy II Plus). Probably, too, you will need a
utility named "ShrinkIt" to unShrink compressed Apple II files you download and
an Apple II telecom utility (e.g. ZLink, ProTerm, ...) to handle file transfers
from your PC or Mac to your Apple II.

     Aside from Apple II user friends, there are many places you can get the
above, as well as all sorts of other Apple II utility, game, etc. software:

1. Apple II Users Groups maintain software libraries of utility and games
diskettes you can copy.

2. Some schools and universities have Apple II areas where you can copy system
and utility diskettes.

3. Many sellers of original and second-hand software advertise on the
comp.sys.apple2.marketplace newsgroup and/or maintain web sites you can browse.
Be sure to check the listing of vendors presented later on.

4. If requested via email, regular posters to Csa2 will often send one or more
'getting started' diskettes which will boot DOS 3.3 and/or ProDOS and which
include some copy, telecom, etc. utilities plus games. (Expect to pay mailing
and materials costs.)

5. The Apple II archive sites listed below maintain large collections of
software which you can download via PC or Mac and transfer to your Apple II.



004- How and where do I download and upload Apple II files?

     How: By far, the easiest and quickest way is to access software sites on
the net using a PC or Mac. Files can be moved to and from your Apple II via a
NULL-modem connection with the net computer. If you use a Mac, you may have the
option of transferring the files via a ProDOS or HFS diskette or an HFS Zip
disk. (For details on file transfes, downloading, and uploading, see the FAQs
Telecom files.)

     Where: Today, most users upload software, info files, etc. to one or more
of the major Apple II ftp software archive sites. Other options include
comp.binaries.apple2 and BBS systems. The software archives and web sites
maintained by developers are good places to obtain software. (See Question 5
for site URLs.)



005- Where can I get Apple II software and information on the net?

Major Apple II Information and Software Sites

Apple major archive of IIgs games, system, etc. software
  as well as being a major information resource and Csa2 FAQs mirror
  for FAQs mirror ...

Apple2 Caltech- large collection of II/IIgs games and utilities

Asimov- #1 archive of Apple II 8-bit games and utilities in
  emulator DSK and file formats; plus emulators and emu info

Asimov Mirrors- sites which mirror Asimov

Ground  Apple2 U. Iowa- the largest Apple II archive and home site
  of the Csa2 FAQs; maintains II/IIgs games, utilities, HC/HS
  stacks, music files, ..., and information plus separate
  collections including the AOL A2 archives

Ground Mirrors- sites which mirror Ground

GS WorldView 'zine- II/IIgs applications articles, games, utilities,
  A2-2000 archive, and links; home site for 1WSW Apple2 U. Kaiserslautern- II/IIgs games, utilities, and
  emulator wares

USA2WUG- Apple II Help & FAQs Collective; Csa2 FAQs mirror
  for FAQs mirror ...

Other Important Apple II Sites

Apple2 U. Kentucky- A2 archive

Apple2 U. Michagan- A2 archive

Apple II Help Page- Info and links; Csa2 FAQs in HTML

Apple II Lessons & Software- BASIC Lessons and A2 software

Apple II Programmer's Archive- language software

Apple II WebRing- links for several user group, etc. sites

Apple Computer- mainly, GS system software

Delphi- on-line service which permits A2 net access
  for "A2 (Apple II)" forum ...
  for "A2Pro" - Apple II Programmers forum ...
  for "II Computing" forum

Emu-Apple II Emulator Page- Apple II emulator software and info

Emu-Apple II Emulator Resource Guide- Apple II emulator info

Emu-Moro's Emulator Page- XGS .2MG utils, Sys6, games, and links

Home of the Apple II- Apple II manual reprints, new user info, ...,
  and message board

International Apple II BBS List- A2 BBS sites and phone numbers

KansasFest Web Page- KansasFest information

KulaSoft- Stocks Eamon Adventures, A2 software, Index

L.J. Silicon's Treasure Chest- Apple II software

Nova Scotia Apple Users Group Page-- II/IIgs utilities

Odessa Entertainment- on-line entertainment 'zines

Texas II- Appleworks products and information, Y2K info, and
  home site for Beverly Cadieux's Apple II Mail Group (A2MG)

The Giant List- major listing of games and authors

Treasure Chest Project- Willie Yeo's list of A2 software
  reclassified as freeware or shareware

Unofficial, Unauthorized, Apple Online Museum- Greg Cifu's
  pages of Apple II machine history, anecdotes, and pictures

Upgrade the GS Project- Home page for input and discussion
  relating to IIgs upgrades



006- What is an Apple II: The KIM

My Ex bought a KIM in ... had to be 1976, 'cause that's the year we
split. He played Hunt the Wumpus on it. I couldn't see the point of
messing with those red LEDs at the time.

Nancy Crawford,  Csa2 post on 27 December, 1995

     KIM (for "Keyboard Input Monitor") was a 6502 'development system' release
in 1976 by MOS Technology. A single board with six 7-segment LED displays, it
soon had a wide following of avid experimenters who wrote programs like Jim
Butterfield's "Lunar Lander" and Stan Ockers's "Hunt the Wumpus" and published
numerous articles in magazines like Byte and KiloBaud describing hardware
add-ons. For many, KIM was the introduction to 6502 computing which would, in a
few years, lead to becoming an Apple II user. --Rubywand


007- What is an Apple II: The Apple I

     The original Apple was not much more than a board.  You had to supply your
own keyboard, monitor and case. It sold for $666.66, but now they are worth
much more as a collector's item. --Dan DeMaggio


008- What is an Apple II: The Apple ][ and Apple ][+

     The II and II+ are the computers that launched the Apple II line. They
have the 6502 microprocessor, ability to do Hi-res and Lo-res color graphics,
sound, joystick input, and casette tape I/O. They have a total of eight
expansion Slots for adding peripherials such as the Disk ][ controller,
MockingBoard, serial I/O, and printer interface. Clock speed is 1MHz and, with
Apple's Language Card installed, standard memory size is 64kB.

     The distinction between the ][ and ][+ is the installed ROMs. The ][
starts you in the Monitor program and includes in-ROM Integer BASIC. The ][+
has the AutoStart ROM which tries to locate and boot a diskette upon startup
and defaults to Applesoft BASIC which is included in-ROM. Many ][ owners
upgraded to the ][+ ROMs.

     Apple ][ and ][+ computers can run thousands of games, utilities, and
other programs created to run under Apple DOS-- chiefly, DOS 3.3. Both machines
can, also, run under ProDOS through v1.9 so long as the software does not
require features of an "enhanced" 128k IIe. For instance, you can run
Appleworks if you have more than 128K RAM installed and a program called
PlusWorks. However, the ][ can not run BASIC programs under ProDOS since
Applesoft must be in ROM.

Recommended configuration: 16K "language card" (in Slot 0), an 80-column video
card (not the same as a //e Extended 80-column card), shift key modification (a
wire running from shift key to game port), modified character ROMs to display
lower case, composite color monitor, Disk ][ controller card, two 5.25" Disk ][
or compatible drives, parallel printer interface card, and parallell-interface
printer. You can add memory beyond 64k in various ways, but many programs that
"require 128K" probably will not work, no matter how much RAM you have. You can
also add accelerators like the SpeeDemon or Rocket/Zip. --Dan DeMaggio, David
Empson, Rubywand


009- What is an Apple II: The "Black Apple"

     Bell & Howell marketed the "Black Apple" made by Apple. It is an Apple II+
done in black with some extra audio/video connections to fit with projectors,
etc. made by B&H-- mainly for use in the classroom. A nice feature is the
"handle" attached to the back. It contains a few power outlets, allowing the
CPU, Monitor, etc., to be controlled with one switch. Evidently, 5000-10,000
units were produced. --Coaxial, Mike McGovern, Rubywand


010- What is an Apple II: The Apple //e

     The //e comes in two flavors: Enhanced and unenhanced. When you start your
computer, the unenhanced IIe displays "Apple ][" at the top of screen; the
Enhanced IIe displays "Apple //e". Apple made an Enhancement kit to upgrade an
unenhanced to Enhanced by replacing 4 chips (CPU [65C02], Video ROM
[MouseText], and new Monitor/Applesoft ROMs). Apple Resource Center sells a IIe
Enhancement kit for $20.00.

     The current IIe operating system is ProDOS-8. (The IIe can also run DOS
3.3, earlier DOS's, and Pascal.) A lot of ProDOS software requires an Enhanced
//e, and sometimes 128K, too.

     A IIe Enhancement Kit does not include any extra RAM. You can expand a 64k
IIe to the standard 128k required for a fully Enhanced IIe via an Extended
80-column card. It plugs into the Aux Connector on the motherboard. Alltech
($19.00), MC Price Breakers ($14.95), and Sequential Systems ($19.95) sell such

     Except for being able to type and display lower-case characters, the
unenhanced IIe is very similar to the II+. A 128k Enhanced IIe adds a number of
features including 80-column firmware and 16-color double-lores and double
hires display capability.

     The Apple //e remains useful for four major reasons:

 1) It runs AppleWorks, a simple to use, yet sophisticated Spreadsheet/Word

 2) It can run many games and other entertainment software products.

 3) There are many Apples in schools-- an example is Louis Cornelio's room at
Clairemont High School ( )-- so there is a ton of
Apple II educational software.

 4) It is was and will always be a _Personal_ computer.  You can learn as
little or as much as you want, and nothing stops you from learning about every
nook and cranny in it. Ask any big name programmer in MS/DOS or Mac where they
learned to program.  Most of them taught themselves on a good ol' Apple II.

Recommended configuration: Extended 80 Column card (gives you 128K) or RamWorks
(512K to 1MB RAM), Enhancement kit (for unenhanced IIe), and a composite color
monitor which can display decent 80-colume text, Super Serial card, Disk ][
controller card, two 5.25" Disk ][ or compatible drives, parallel printer
interface card, and parallell-interface printer. A Hard Drive is recommended if
you use a lot of different programs. Heavy Appleworks users should add the hard
disk, extra RAM, and a 4MHz or better accelerator (like the Rocket Chip, Zip
Chip or TransWarp). --Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand


011- What is an Apple II: The Apple //c and IIc+

     The //c and IIc+ are compact 'luggable' versions of an Enhanced //e, with
many built-in 'cards'. Included are 2 serial ports, a mouse port, a disk port
and 128K of RAM. Support for the original Apple casette tape I/O is gone. The
//c has a built-in 5.25" drive while the IIc+ has a built-in 3.5" drive.

     The IIc+ has a built-in accelerator that runs at 4 MHz (vs. the //c's
1MHz) making it the fastest Apple II as well as faster than any of the A2
clones. (To boot your IIc+ at 'regular', 1MHz, speed, include the Escape key in
the usual boot keypresses-- i.e. OpenApple-CTRL-ESC-RESET.) The IIc+, which was
introduced after the IIgs, also allows daisey chaining the GS Apple 3.5" drive
along with 5.25" drives.

     The //c and IIc+ run just about all of the DOS 3.3, ProDOS, "128k"
software, etc. that an Enhanced //e runs plus the few //c-only software
releases. However, the use of certain locations for storing system variables
and ROM differences means that //c series machines will not run a number of old
games designed for the ][ and ][+ which the IIe and IIgs will run.

     Even though //c machines don't have slots, you can still add extra memory
(there's room under the keyboard) and a hard drive (through the disk port--a
bit slow by ordinary standards, but usable.  Hard to find though.. Was made by
Chinook). There is also a for-//c "D" version of MockingBoard you can plug in
to get much improved sound and music from software supporting the board, and a
module you can attach to convert output to RF for using a TV as a monitor.

Recommended configuration: A composite color monitor which can display decent
80-colume text, 1 MB RAM, and, maybe, a hard drive. For the //c, add a second
5.25" drive; for the IIc+, add a second 3.5" drive and two 5.25" drives. --Dan
DeMaggio, Rubywand


012- What is an Apple II: The Laser 128EX and 'EX/2

     While not made by Apple, these Lasers can run just about anything that an
Enhanced //e can run. They are as luggable as a //c and include built-in
'cards'. They are also fast; the entire motherboard runs at 3.6Mhz. If you want
to use a card in the single expansion Slot, you may have to disable the
internal UDC (for 3.5" drives) or the internal 1MB memory expansion.

     Unlike the EX model, which supports one additional disk drive, the EX/2
supports as many daisychained drives as a IIgs and has a built in BRAM control
panel for saving settings. The EX/2 also has a built in 3.5" disk drive, a MIDI
port, and a video port which can support analog RGB and digital CGA monitors as
well as an LCD display. --Supertimer, Dan DeMaggio


013- What is an Apple II: The Apple IIgs

     The IIgs (or "GS") represents a giant leap in the Apple II line.  It can
still run //e software, but has a better processor (16-bit), a new super-hires
graphics mode, a toolbox in ROM (just like the Mac), a 32-oscillator Ensoniq
sound chip, and a base speed of 2.8MHz.

     GS can run DOS 3.3, ProDOS, Pascal, and any other OS the earlier 8-bit
models can run. Like the //c series, it does not support the original Apple
casette tape I/O. GS is the only A2 machine which can run GS/OS. GS/OS and
Toolbox routines make it possible for the System Finder program to deliver a
sophisticated 'mouse and windows' environment which looks very much like PC's
Windows. The current version of System is "System 6.0.1".

     The first GS's were released in the Fall of 1986. The batches produced
until mid-late 1987 became known as "ROM 00" machines after release of the "ROM
01" models. When you boot a ROM-01 GS, the startup screen shows "ROM Version
01"; when you boot a ROM-00 GS the startup screen says nothing about ROM

     The original GS's came in cases marked "Limited Edition" with Steve
Wozniak's signature. Often, these are referred to as "Woz GS's". A relatively
small number of users chose Apple's option to upgrade their IIe's with a
motherboard swap. The swap included "IIgs" labels users could substitute for
"IIe" in the case insert.

     At the time of the ROM-01 change-over, Apple supplied a ROM-00-to-ROM-01
upgrade service free. It consists of swapping in a new ROM and a new Video
Graphics Controller ("VGC") IC. ROM-00 machines which have not had the upgrade
can not run modern GS software-- the ROM must be upgraded. Alltech
(760-724-2404; ) sells a ROM-01 'upgrade kit' consisting of
the 01 ROM for $29.00.

     The VGC upgrade is not required for software compatibility, and is not
needed for all machines anyway. It is supposed to fix cosmetic problems in
monochrome double-hires graphics mode (pink flickering or fringing on what is
supposed to be a black and white screen).  On some machines the VGC swap also
fixes some color combination problems in 80-column text mode.

     Whether via the upgrade or original purchase of a newer GS, by late 1987
nearly all GS users were 'on the same page'. That is, we had the ROM-01
platform with its base 256kB RAM plus the official Apple 1MB Expansion Memory
Board plugged into the Memory Expansion Slot for a total of 1.25MB of
fully-accessible system RAM. For the next couple of years, practically all GS
software was designed to launch from 3.5" diskette under "ProDOS-16" and to fit
within the 1.25MB of RAM everyone was assumed to have installed.

     In 1989 Apple introduced the "ROM 3" GS-- the startup screen shows "ROM
Version 3". (No ROM-02 GS was ever released). The only major improvement over
ROM-01 is more base RAM-- you get 1MB instead of 256kB. This is a very nice
benefit. It means that a ROM 3 with a 4MB Mem Exp Board will have 5MB of fully
accessible RAM whereas a ROM-01 can have 4.25MB of fully-accessible RAM. In
effect, the ROM 3 owner gets a 'free' 800kB RAM disk. As Mitch Spector notes in
his listing of ROM 3 features (see in CSA2HDWHACK.TXT), the newer GS offers a
number of other nice pluses with the only significant minus being
incompatibility with a few older GS programs.

     Chiefly, ROM 3 is a 1989 re-do of ROM-01 featuring more streamlined
hardware and more built-in firmware. (Upon booting, the current system software
applies in-RAM patches matched to each ROM version to achieve nearly identical
operation.)  Very few ROM-01 owners felt any urge to move to ROM 3. Even today,
the vast majority of installed GS's are ROM-01 machines.

     The 1990's have seen wide adoption of four major GS enhancements:

OS- After years of foot-dragging, Apple finally produced a decent 16-bit GS
operating system with release of System 5.0. Within a few years this evolved
into today's System 6 (System 6.0.1). System 6 has won wide acceptance as a
relatively stable OS which, at last, allows GS users to access many of the
features of GS computing promised back in 1986. Whereas earlier OS's can 'fit'
on a GS with 1MB of Expansion memory, System 6 really requires something like
2.5MB RAM to be worth installing.

Memory- Driven, in part, by the need for more memory to run System 6, 4MB
became the standard size of installed Memory Expansions. Except for school GS's
and GS's taken out of circulation and tucked away in closets, the old Apple 1MB
Expansion Boards have long ago been replaced with 4MB boards.

Hard Disk- As with memory, the size of newer versions of System supplied a
strong push toward adding a hard disk. Software was becoming larger, too, and
there was so much of it that making everything work from diskette became
impossibly cumbersome. Lower HD prices, attractive SCSI interfaces such as
RamFAST, and low-cost, easy single-card IDE solutions such as the Focus "Hard
Card" have helped make the hard disk a standard, expected peripheral on today's

Acceleration- Few commercial software offerings actually sought to push GS
users to higher speeds; and, as a result, users went for years feeling no great
need for Applied Engineering's expensive Transwarp accelerator. The arrival of
Zip Technology's lower-cost ZipGS board together with a clear need for more
speed to handle System 6 sparked a nearly overnight 'acceleration revolution'.
Today, an accelerator running at 8MHz or better is considered, very nearly, to
be a necessary IIgs enhancement.

Recommended configuration: ROM-01 or ROM 3 with 4MB Memory Expansion board--
i.e. 4.25MB (ROM-01) or 5MB (ROM 3) of total system RAM, RamFAST SCSI + 120MB
or larger SCSI hard disk OR 120MB or larger HD-on-a-card IDE drive (e.g.
Alltech's Focus Hard Card or SHH's Turbo IDE series) with System 6.0.1
installed, 8MHz/32k TransWarp or 9MHz/32k ZipGS or better accelerator board,
Stereo Card, Imagewriter II printer, two 3.5" and two 5.25" diskette drives.

A minimum GS system that will run many older wares and still deliver a decent
operating system is a ROM-01 GS with the Apple 1MB Memory Expansion board, two
3.5" drives, at least one 5.25" drive, and  Imagewriter II printer, which boots
System 5.0.4 from 3.5" diskette. --Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand, David Empson, Randy
Shackelford, Richard Bennett


014- What is an Apple II: The Apple IIe Emulation Card

     This is a 'IIe on a card' plug-in that fits into Mac LC and some
subsequent machines that have the LC Processor Direct Slot (PDS). This includes
020, 030, and 040 machines. The card is not compatible with the Mac Quadra. It
lets one run Apple //e software.

     Many of these cards are sold today without documentation. In case you've
just plugged one into your Mac Color Classic, etc., it will help to know that
pressing Command-Control-Escape gets you to the Preferences panel.

     The Apple IIe Emulation Card is actually more like a //c because the card
is not an expandable machine like a //e. There is a place on the back of the
card to plug in a UniDisk 5.25" and a joystick.  Because the graphics are
handled by the Mac, animation may be slow if you don't have a decent Mac. --Dan
DeMaggio, David Empson, Owen Aaland, Edward Floden, Liam Busey


Related FAQs Resources: R024GSSPECS.TXT (text file)

015- Where can I find a compact listing of Apple IIgs

     Apple IIgs specifications are described in the FAQs resource file

-- Supertimer


016- What is "8 bit" and "16 bit"?

     Number of bits usually indicates how big a chunk of data a computer's main
microprocessor can manipulate. The Apple IIgs is based on the 65C816
microprocessor and is considered to be a 16-bit machine. Previous Apple ]['s
are based upon pure 8-bit microprocessors such as the 6502 and 65C02. These are
considered to be 8-bit machines. Sometimes II+ or IIe or IIc software is called
"8-bit software".

     The 65C816 is a member of the 6502 family which includes expanded
registers and adds many new commands while retaining the ability to go into
8-bit mode. So; the GS can run most 8-bit wares designed for older Apple II
machines as well as newer 16-bit wares. Meanwhile, 8-bit machines are pretty
well limited to 8-bit wares. --Rubywand


017- How can I tell what version my computer is?

Apple //e:

     The major division is between the Enhanced and unenhanced //e models. Look
at your computer while re-booting.  If it says "APPLE ][", it is not enhanced.
The enhanced computers will say "Apple //e". You can upgrade it yourself by
getting the Apple //e Enhancement kit. (It contains 4 chips to replace on your

     Many newer programs will not work unless you have an Enhanced //e. If you
have a //c or GS, or a Laser 128, you have Enhanced //e compatibility. There
are also some older //e's that are not capable of double-hires.  Check the
serial number on the motherboard (in the back, by the power-on led). If it is
820-0064-A, you must change the motherboard to upgrade (unless you have the PAL
version). Serial #s like 820-0064-B or 820-0087-A are the plain //e, and the
version with the grey case comes pre-Enhanced.

week 26 1983:
        820-0073-A (c) 1982   Colour killer switch soldered to open
        B-607-0664            oscillator position on PCB.

week 38 1983:
        820-0073-B (c) 1982   Colour killer switch near RHS of PCB.
        B-607-0264            All chips socketed.

week  7 1985:
        820-0073   (c) 1984   PCB marked for enhanced ROMs & 65c02
        B-607-0264           (mine had old ROMs and 6502). RAM &
                              some TTL soldered in.

     All three work with double res graphics. (Apart from the revision letter
vanishing, most chips being soldered in and the silkscreened ROM numbers, I can
see no difference between the last two PCBs mentioned.)

Apple //c:

     Go into Basic and type "PRINT PEEK (64447)" and press return.  If it says
255, you have a very old //c.  See your dealer about getting an upgrade (tell
them that the Apple authorization number is ODL660). If it says 0, you can do
3.5" drives, but you don't have the memory expansion connector. If it says 3
You have the memory expansion.  If it says 4, you have the latest model of the
//c. If it says 5, you have a //c+.

Apple IIgs:

     There are 3 major versions of the GS: Check the initial power-up screen.
It will probably say ROM-01 or ROM 3. If it does not say either, you have a
ROM-00 model. You must upgrade a ROM-00 machine in order to run current system
software. The ROM-01 has 256K on the motherboard, while the ROM 3 has 1 MB on
the motherboard. Most of the enhancements of the ROM 3 (except the 1MB, of
course) can be added to the ROM-01 simply by booting up with current system
software. --Dan DeMaggio


018- How can I find out about using my Apple II?

     Of course, you can peruse the newsgroup FAQs Q&A and check out the Apple
II internet sites listed earlier. Charles Hartleys's Apple II Lessons &
Software is a good example of the latter. Also, Charles "Dr. Tom" Turley is
building a collection of New User info on his site at ...*Help.for.NEW.A2.Users.txt .

     Still, there is really no substitute for having the technical manual for
your particular Apple II or clone. The manual for the ][ and ][+ is the Apple
][ Reference Manual. For the IIe and IIc you want Apple's Technical Reference
Manual for your machine. For the IIgs you will want, at least, the IIgs
Hardware Reference and IIgs Firmware Reference.

     Naturally, you will want to get manuals and materials covering DOS,
ProDOS, BASIC, and many other areas relating to your Apple II. Below is a
decent 'getting started' sampling:

Applesoft BASIC and Assembly Language

Assembly Lines: The Book  by Wagner
Basic Programming Reference Manual  from Apple
Programming the 65816 Including the 6502, 65C02, and 65802
  by David Eyes and Ron Lichty
65816/65802 Assembly Language Programming by Fischer

DOS, ProDOS, and GS/OS

Apple IIgs GS/OS Technical Reference (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
Beneath Apple DOS  by Worth & Lechner
Beneath Apple ProDOS  by Worth & Lechner
Exploring Apple GS/OS and ProDOS 8  by Little
ProDOS Inside and Out  by Doms and Weishaar
ProDOS Technical Reference Manual (Apple/ Addison-Wesley)
The DOS Manual  from Apple

General Apple II

Apple II Reference Manual  from Apple
Apple II User's Guide  by Poole, Martin, and Cook
Beagle Bros "Peeks, Pokes, and Pointers" (poster)  by Beagle Bros
The Apple II Circuit Description  by Winston D. Gayler
What's Where in the Apple II?  by William F. Luebbert

     Some technical manuals and other materials can be obtained in original or
reprint form from Byte Works. Most Apple II books, etc. also turn up for sale
on comp.sys.apple2.marketplace, at used book shops, and at local Users Group
swap meets. A few items, such as Reference Cards and posters, can be downloaded
in Text or HTML form from Apple II archives.

     Another good resource is a subscription to an Apple II newsletter or
magazine (see Question 20); and, don't overlook collections of major Apple II
magazines published through the 1980's (e.g. inCider, Nibble, Computist, etc.).
They are virtual encyclopedias covering many areas of II computing.

     Often, the easiest, quickest way to an awswer for some Apple II question
is to 'just ask it' on comp.sys.apple2. There is no Csa2 rule about making sure
your question is hard enough or reading the FAQs first. Supplying information
is the main purpose of the newsgroup.

     But, suppose you have zilch info, do not feel like looking through the
FAQs, and want to start Now. The following _may_ be all you need to get going
with some game or utility from diskette:

o The Disk Controller Card for Apple ][, ][+, and IIe goes into Slot 6 (next to
last Slot on the right when viewed from the front). Drive 1 plugs into the top
connector with the ribbon side of the cable plug facing out. Plug in the
cable(s) before plugging in the card so that you are sure the connector and
plug line up correctly.

o On the IIgs, the 3.5" drive(s) plug in first, then, the 5.25" drive(s).

o Unless a hard disk is installed, most Apple II's try to boot a diskette and
start DOS 3.3, ProDOS, or GS/OS when turned ON. (On the old Apple ][ you can
type in 6 Control-P RETURN to boot from the Monitor, assuming your Controller
Card is in Slot 6. To press Control-P, press and hold Control, then P, then
release both keys.)

o Most, but not all, diskettes are bootable. If one diskette doesn't boot, try
another. If no diskettes boot, use a Radio Shack Head Cleaner diskette to clean
the drive head(s).

o If the prompt you see is ], you are in Applesoft BASIC; > indicates Integer
BASIC; and * indicates the Monitor. If both Integer BASIC and Applesoft are in
memory, you can enter FP to switch from Integer to Applesoft and INT to switch
from Applesoft to Integer. To go from either BASIC to the Monitor, enter
CALL-151. To start the current BASIC from the Monitor, enter Control-B. To go
back to BASIC with program and variables in tact from the Monitor, enter

o Except for the ][ and ][+, you must press Control-RESET to do a Reset.

o To boot a diskette when viewing a BASIC prompt, you can enter PR#6 to boot a
drive associated with Slot 6-- usually a 5.25" drive-- and PR#5 to boot a drive
associated with Slot 5-- usually a 3.5" drive.

--Rubywand, David Wilson


019- Where do I find out about Apple II Users Groups?

     Many Apple II users groups continue to meet, especially in major cities
and on university campi. If a local group listing is 'missing' from your phone
book, check for a Mac users group-- a number of Apple II groups merged with
their Mac counterparts.

     The Apple User Group Connection (800-538-9696 ext 500) can tell you the
closest Apple II (or Macintosh) User Group. Several web sites maintain user
group lists. One such site is ...

     Of course, you can always post a question to Csa2 or to
comp.sys.apple2.usergroups. --Rubywand


020- Where can I get Apple II parts, boards, and software?

All Electronics (800-826-5432; ) major surplus and new
parts seller- switches, LCD panels, connectors, transformers, caps, IIgs-type
lithium batteries, etc.

Alltech (760-724-2404;  accepts on-line orders) sells all
kinds of replacement parts for Apple II's as well as the Focus Hard Card
drives, CD-ROM drives, cables, memory boards & IC's, diskettes, ... .

Apple Resource Center "The ARC" (800-753-0114; ) sells
Apple II computers and peripherals.

Auction sites which handle Apple II items on the internet

AV Systems (  email: game, education, utility software for Apple II

B&R Computer Services (619-225-8281; )
sells Apple II computers, peripherals, and software.

Stephen Buggie (505-863-2390) sells the famous Buggie Power Supplies, Buggie
Drives, and does disk drive conversions.

Byte Works (505-898-8183;  email: sells the respected Orca series of Apple II languages and
support software including the new GS BASIC.

Catweasel ( ) makes and sells a
disk drive controller intended for reading A2 diskettes on non-A2 drives.

Charlie's AppleSeeds (619-566-0387; 9081 Hadley Place, San Diego CA 92126-1523;
Chuck Newby's email: sells Apple II hard disks and
controllers, floppy drives, ... and ProSel, ProSel-16 documentation.

Comp.sys.apple2.marketplace is the Csa2 newsgroup for buying and selling Apple
II hardware and software.

Creative Solutions (937-429-5759; )
Apple II hardware, software, and repairs

Digi-Key (800-344-4539; IC's and general parts supplier

DigiSoft Innovations (  email: Jim
Maricondo at continues to sell the Golden Orchard CD
and is working on GO-II.

Dirt-Cheap Drives (800-786-1160; ) 2.5" IDE

Emerald City Sales (870-743-3872; ) sells TrackStar boards
and other A2 hardware.

Gene Ehrich's On-Line Computer Garage Sale (email:; ) sells Apple II (C-64, PC, etc.) hardware,
software, manuals, and other items.

Halted Specialties (800-442-5833; ) sells electronic
parts- sockets, cables, plugs, caps, Parallax BASIC stamp, SCSI cables, ...
good prices for 74xxx, 65xx, etc. IC's

Hudson's Hobby Games (P.O. Box 121503, Arlington, Texas, 76012; 817-461-0126;
email: sells Old Apple II games in original boxes

InTrec Software (888-PROTERM; ) sells ProTerm A2 and
high-speed GS modem cable; the "InTrec Store" sells used II/IIgs hardware and
software at good prices

Jameco (800-831-4242; ) Apple II and general parts

JDR Microdevices (800-538-5000; ) Apple II and general parts

Kitchen Sink Software (614-891-2111; ) Apple II

KulaSoft (808-595-8131; ) Eamon
Adventures, Kula Index, software collections, tutorials, and books

Steven Lichter (Apple Elite II BBS 909-359-5338; email: offers
GBBS/LLUCE support and software.

Lynxmotion (104 Partridge Road, Pekin, IL 61554-1403; 309-382-1816 ) sells Robot kits, Robot arms, servos, controllers,
... for PC but adaptable for Apple II

MC Price Breakers (360-837-3042; ) sells memory boards,
high-speed GS modem cables, and other Apple II hardware

MECI (800-344-6324; ) surplus electronic parts- fans,
tubes, solenoids, IC sockets, 50-25 SCSI cables and adaptors, ...

Mouser Electronics (800-346-6873; ) major IC and general
parts supplier

MPJA/ Marlin P. Jones (800-652-6733; ) many power supplies,
NULL modem, Parallax BASIC stamp, misc kits, LED displays, LCD panels, ...

Newark Electronics (800-463-9275; ) major electronic
parts supplier

Ninjaforce Entertainment ( ) Ninjaforce
software for IIgs

Pre-Owned Electronics (800-274-5343) sells a variety of peripherals and

Scantron Quality Computers (800-777-3642 ) Appleworks,
Appleworks-GS vendor.

Sequential Systems (303-666-4549;  email:  sells 4-8MB GS memory boards, RAMfast SCSI
interface, and other peripheral boards.

Seven Hills Software (850-575-0566; )
develops and sells IIgs software.

Shareware Solutions II (  email: sells Convert 3200 plus games, boxed Old game originals, the
Golden Orchard CD-ROM, and other wares.

SHH Systeme, Germany ( ) sells Turbo IDE
and other HD controller cards, Blue Disk, TWGS Accelerator upgrades, and

Shreve Systems (800-227-3971; ) sells II
computers, peripherals, parts and accessories.

Software and More (916-725-0228; )
sells Apple II hardware and software.

Sun Remarketing (800-821-3221;  accepts on-line orders)
sells Apple II parts and peripherals.

Texas II/Kingwood Micro Software (2503 Sherbrooke Lane, McKinney, TX 75070;
972-562-6335; ) develops and sells classic
Appleworks v3.0-v5.1 support software.

Vernier Software (503-297-5317; )  sells project books
and components.

Wayne's Computer (315-689-7899; ) sells Apple II
computers, peripherals, and software.

Western Design Center (602-962-4545; ) makes and sells
65C816 microprocessor used in IIgs and for accelerator upgrades.

William K. Bradford Co. (800-421-2009; ) Apple II
educational software

--Dan DeMaggio, Rubywand


021- Where do I get Apple II books and periodicals?

The Applebyter newsletter (Applebyters Computer Club, P.O. Box 2092, Davenport,
IA  52809 ) is a vintage
monthly newsletter.

Apple Blossom is a bi-montly mini-magazine edited by Steve Cavenaugh. (Apple
Blossom Publishing, P.O. Box 120434, Boston, MA 02112-0434;  email:

Byte Works (505-898-8183; ) major source for
Apple II series manuals, other Apple books, and Orca languages, manuals, and
support. (

Composition is an on-line 'zine devoted to GS MIDIsynth and synthLAB music ( ) published by
Gregory Heald.

Dark Castle (Wolborgenmate 72, 7006 DK Doetinchem, The Netherlands;
+31-314-365145) is a quarterly mini-magazine edited by Doede Boomsma.

Eamon Adventurer's Guild newsletter (7625 Hawkhaven Dr., Clemmons, NC  27012;
910-766-7490) is the quarterly journal for the famous adventuring series edited
by Thomas Zuchowski. (email: or

GS WorldView ( ) is an Apple II/IIgs web
'zine edited by Charles Turley

Juiced GS (2217 Lakeview Dr., Sullivan, IN  47882) is a quarterly mini-magazine
edited by Max Jones. ( ; email:

Nuts & Volts Magazine (800-783-4624; ) not A2
specific, but good info on robot making and other interesting projects; also, a
good source for surplus electronic parts ads

Shareware Solutions II (166 Alpine Street, San Rafael, CA 94901  email: is a bi-monthly mini-magazine
edited by Joe Kohn

Texas II (2503 Sherbrooke Lane, McKinney, TX 75070; 972-562-6335; ) is an Appleworks newsletter published by Beverly
Cadieux (